Skip to main content

Full text of "FM 23-10 Sniper Training"

See other formats


FM 23-10 



SNIPER TRAINING 




HEADQUARTERS 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 



DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION— 

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 



*FM 23-10 
17 August 1994 

FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS 

No. 23-10 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

Washington, DC, 17 August 1994 



SNIPER TRAINING 

CONTENTS 

page 
Preface ix 

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 

1-1. Mission 1-1 

1-2. Organization 1-2 

1-3. Personnel Selection Criteria 1-3 

1-4. Sniper and Observer Responsibilities 1-5 

1-5. Team Firing Techniques 1-6 

CHAPTER 2. EQUIPMENT 

Section I. M24 Sniper Weapon System 2-1 

2-1. Operations and Functions 2-4 

2-2. Inspection 2-9 

2-3. Care and Maintenance 2-9 

2-4. Disassembly 2-15 

2-5. Loading and Unloading 2-17 

2-6. Storage 2-18 



DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; 
distribution is unlimited. 



*This publication supersedes TC 23-14, 14 June 1989. 



FM 23-10 

page 

Section II. Ammunition 2-18 

2-7. 'types and Characteristic 2-18 

2-8. Round-Count Book 2-19 

2-9. M24 Malfunctions and Corrections 2-19 

Section III. Sniper Sighting Devices 2-22 

2-10. M3AScope 2-22 

2-11. Iron Sights 2-29 

Section IV. Other Equipment 2-32 

2-12. M16A1/A2 Rifle with M203 Grenade Launcher . 2-32 

2-13. Image Intensification and Infrared Devices . . . 2-33 

2-14. M49 Observation Telescope 2-37 

2-15. M19 Binoculars 2-39 

2-16. M22 Binoculars 2-40 

2-17. Other Sniper Equipment 2-40 

Section V Communications Equipment 2-41 

2-18. AN/PRC-77 Radio 2-41 

2-19. AN/PRC-104A Radio Transceiver 2-42 

2-20. AN/PRC-1 19 Radio 2-43 

CHAPTER 3. MARKSMANSHIP 

Section I. Fundamentals 3-1 

3-1. Steady Position Elements 3-1 

3-2. Aiming 3-16 

3-3. Breath Control 3-20 

3-4. Trigger Control 3-21 

3-5. Follow-Through 3-22 

3-6. Calling the Shot 3-22 

3-7. Integrated Act of Firing 3-23 



11 



FM 23-10 

page 

Section II. Ballistics 3-25 

3-8. Types of Ballistics 3-25 

3-9. Terminology 3-25 

3-10. Effects on Trajectory 3-26 

3-11. Angle Firing 3-28 

Section III. Effects of Weather 3-29 

3-12. Wind Classification 3-29 

3-13. Wind Velocity 3-31 

3-14. Conversion of Wind Velocity to Minutes 

of Angle 3-33 

3-15. Effects of Light 3-36 

3-16. Effects of Temperature 3-36 

3-17. Effects of Humidity 3-36 

Section IV. Sniper Data Book 3-36 

3-18. Entries 3-37 

3-19. Analysis 3-38 

Section V. Holdoff 3-40 

3-20. Elevation 3-40 

3-21. Windage 3-42 

Section VI. Engagement of Moving Targets 3-43 

3-22. Techniques 3-43 

3-23. Common Errors 3-44 

3-24. Calculation of Leads 3-44 

Section VII. Nuclear, Biological, Chemical 3-45 

3-25. Protective Mask 3-45 

3-26. Mission-Oriented Protection Posture 3-46 



in 



FM 23-10 

page 
CHAPTER 4. FIELD TECHNIQUES 

Section I. Camouflage 4-1 

4-1. Target Indicators 4-1 

4-2. Basic Methods 4-2 

4-3. Types of Camouflage 4-2 

4-4. Ghillie Suit 4-3 

4-5. Field-Expedient Camouflage 4-4 

4-6. Cover and Concealment 4-6 

Section II. Movement 4-7 

4-7. Rules of Movement 4-7 

4-8. Individual Movement Techniques 4-8 

4-9. Sniper Team Movement and Navigation 4-11 

Section III. Selection, Occupation, and Construction 

of Sniper Positions 4-14 

4-10. Selection 4-14 

4-11. Occupation 4-15 

4-12. Construction 4-16 

4-13. Positions in Urban Terrain 4-23 

Section IV Observation 4-28 

4-14. Hasty and Detailed Searches 4-29 

4-15. Elements of Observation 4-30 

4-16. TWilight Techniques 4-31 

4-17. Night Techniques 4-31 

4-18. Illumination Aids 4-32 



IV 



FM 23-10 

page 

Section V Target Detection and Selection 4-32 

4-19. Target Indexing 4-32 

4-20. Target Selection 4-34 

4-21. KeyTarget 4-35 

Section VI. Range Estimation 4-36 

4-22. Factors Affecting Range Estimation 4-36 

4-23. Range Estimation Methods 4-36 

4-24. Laser Range Finder 4-40 

4-2S. Estimation Guidelines 4-40 

Section VII. Information Records 4-42 

4-26. Range Card 4-42 

4-27. Military Sketch 4-43 

4-28. Sniper Data Book 4-46 

CHAPTERS. MISSION PREPARATION 

Section I. Planning and Coordination 5-1 

5-1. Mission Alert 5-1 

5-2. Warning Order 5-1 

5-3. Tentative Plan 5-1 

5-4. Coordination Checklists 5-2 

5-5. Completion of Plan 5-7 

5-6. Operation Order 5-7 

5-7. Briefback 5-8 

5-8. Equipment Check 5-9 

5-9. Final Inspection 5-9 

5-10. Rehearsals 5-10 

5-11. Final Preparations 5-10 



FM 23-10 

page 

5-12. Preparation for Debriefing 5-11 

5-13. Countersniper Operation 5-11 

5-14. Reaction to Enemy Sniper Fire 5-13 

Section II. Mission Packing Lists 5-13 

5-15. Arms and Ammunition 5-13 

5-16. Special Equipment 5-14 

5-17. Uniforms and Equipment 5-15 

5-18. Optional Equipment 5-16 

5-19. Special Tools and Equipment (MOUT) 5-17 

5-20. Additional Equipment Transport 5-18 

CHAPTER*. OPERATIONS 

Section I. Insertion 6-1 

6-1. Planning Insertion 6-1 

6-2. Air Insertion 6-3 

6-3. Amphibious Insertion 6-4 

6-4. Land Insertion 6-7 

6-5. Vehicle Insertion 6-9 

Section II. Execution 6-10 

6-6. Movement to Target Area 6-10 

6-7. Occupation of Position 6-11 

6-8. Site Selection 6-11 

6-9. Reports 6-12 

6-10. Movement to Extraction Site 6-12 

Section III. Extraction and Recovery 6-13 

6-11. Planning 6-13 

6-12. Evasion and Escape Plan 6-13 

6-13. Air or Afater Extraction 6-14 



VI 



FM 23-1 

page 

6-14. Land Exfiltration 6-15 

6-15. Vehicle Extraction 6-15 

6-16. Recovery 6-16 

CHAPTER 7. COMMUNICATIONS 

Section! Field-Expedient Antennas 7-1 

7-1. Repair Technique 7-1 

7-2. Construction and Adjustment 7-3 

7-3. Field-Expedient Omnidirectional Antenna 7-4 

7-4. Field-Expedient Directional Antenna 7-9 

7-5. Antenna Length 7-12 

7-6. Antenna Orientation 7-13 

7-7. Improvement of Marginal Communications . . . .7-13 

Section II. Radio Operations Under UnusualConditions . 7-13 

7-8. Arctic Areas 7-13 

7-9. Jungle Areas 7-15 

7-10. Desert Areas 7-20 

7-11. Mountainous Areas 7-22 

7-12. Urbanized Terrain 7-22 

7-13. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment . . 7-22 

Section III. Communications Format 7-23 

7-14. Spot Report 7-23 

7-15. Situation Report 7-24 

7-16. Reconnaissance Report 7-25 

7-17. Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and 

Interference Report 7-28 

7-18. Shelling Reports 7-30 

7-19. Enemy Prisoner of War/Captured Materiel 

Report 7-31 

vii 



FM 23-10 

7-20. NBC 1 Report 7-32 

7-21. Medical Evacuation Request 7-33 

CHAPTER 8. TRACKING/COUNTERTRACKING 

Section I. Tracking 8-1 

8-1. Displacement 8-1 

8-2. Stains 8-5 

8-3. Weather 8-6 

8-4. Litter 8-8 

8-5. Camouflage 8-8 

8-6. Immediate-Use Intelligence 8-8 

8-7. Dog/Handler Tracking Teams 8-9 

Section II. Countertracking 8-11 

8-8. Evasion 8-11 

8-9. Camouflage 8-11 

8-10. Deception Techniques 8-12 

CHAPTER 9. SNIPER SUSTAINMENT TRAINING 

9-1. Basic Skills Sustainment 9-1 

9-2. Additional Skills Sustainment 9-15 

9-3. Training Notes 9-22 

9-4. Example 5-day Sniper Sustainment 

Training Program 9-25 

9-5. Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise . . . 9-34 

9-6. Record Fire Tables 9-36 

9-7. M24 Sniper MILES Training 9-40 

APPENDIX A. SNIPER WEAPONS OF THE WORLD A-l 

APPENDIX B. M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM B-l 

GLOSSARY Glossary-1 

REFERENCES References-1 

INDEX Index-1 



vm 



FM 23-10 



PREFACE 

This field manual provides information needed to train and equip snipers 
and to aid them in their missions and operations. It is intended for use 
by commanders, staffs, trainers, snipers, and soldiers at training posts, 
Army schools, and units. 

This manual is organized as a reference for snipers and leads the trainer 
through the material needed to conduct sniper training. Subjects include 
equipment, weapon capabilities, fundamentals of marksmanship and 
ballistics, field skills, mission planning, and skill sustainment. 
The left-handed firer can become a sniper, but all material in this book 
is referenced to the right-handed firer. 

The proponent for this publication is Headquarters, United States Army 
Infantry School. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 
(Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to the 
Commandant, United States Army Infantry School, ATTN: ATSH-IN-S3, 
Fort Benning, GA 31905-5596. 

This publication complies with the following international agreements: 

STANAG 2020 Operational Situation Report 

STANAG 2022 Intelligence Report 

STANAG 2084 Handling and Reporting of Captured Enemy 
Equipment and Documents 

STANAG 2103 Reporting Nuclear Detonations, Radioactive Fallout 
and Biological and Chemical Attacks, and Predicting 
Associated Hazards 

STANAG 2934 Artillery Procedures-AARTY-1 

STANAG 3204 Aeromedical Evacuation 

STANAG 6004 Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference 
Report 



Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and 
pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. 



IX 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 1 

INTRODUCTION 

The sniper has special abilities, training and equipment. His job is 
to deliver discriminatory highly accurate rifle fire against enemy 
targets, which cannot be engaged successfully by the rifleman 
because of range, size, location, fleeting nature, or visibility. 
Sniping requires the development of basic infantry skills to a high 
degree of perfection. A sniper's training incorporates a wide variety 
of subjects designed to increase his value as a force multiplier and 
to ensure his survival on the battlefield. The art of sniping requires 
learning and repetitiously practicing these skills until mastered. 
A sniper must be highly trained in long-range rifle marksmanship 
and field craft skills to ensure maximum effective engagements with 
minimum risk. 

1-1. MISSION 

The primary mission of a sniper in combat is to support combat operations 
by delivering precise long-range fire on selected targets. By this, the 
sniper creates casualties among enemy troops, slows enemy movement, 
frightens enemy soldiers, lowers morale, and adds confusion to 
their operations. The secondary mission of the sniper is collecting and 
reporting battlefield information. 

a. A well-trained sniper, combined with the inherent accuracy of his 
rifle and ammunition, is a versatile supporting arm available to an infantry 
commander. The importance of the sniper cannot be measured simply by 
the number of casualties he inflicts upon the enemy. Realization of the 
sniper's presence instills fear in enemy troop elements and influences 
their decisions and actions. A sniper enhances a unit's firepower and 
augments the varied means for destruction and harassment of the enemy. 
Whether a sniper is organic or attached, he will provide that unit with 



1-1 



FM 23-10 



extra supporting fire. The sniper's role is unique in that it is the sole 
means by which a unit can engage point targets at distances beyond the 
effective range of the M16 rifle, this role becomes more significant when 
the target is entrenched or positioned among civilians, or during riot 
control missions. The fires of automatic weapons in such operations can 
result in the wounding or killing of noncombatants. 

b. Snipers are employed m all levels of conflict. This includes 
conventional offensive and defensive combat in which precision fire is 
delivered at long ranges. It also includes combat patrols, ambushes, 
countersniper operations, forward observation elements, military 
operations m urbanized terrain, and retrograde operations in which 
snipers are part of forces left in contact or as stay-behind forces. 

1-2. ORGANIZATION 

In light infantry divisions, the sniper element is composed of six battalion 
personnel organized into three 2-man teams. The commander designates 
missions and priorities of targets for the team and may attach or place the 
team under the operational control of a company or platoon. They may 
perform dual missions, depending on the need. In the mechanized 
infantry battalions, the sniper element is composed of two riflemen 
(one team) located in a rifle squad. In some specialized units, snipers may 
be organized according to the needs of the tactical situation. 

a. Sniper teams should be centrally controlled by the commander or the 
sniper employment officer. The SEO is responsible for the command and 
control of snipers assigned to the unit. In light infantry units, the SEO will 
be the reconnaissance platoon leader or the platoon sergeant. In heavy 
or mechanized units, the SEO may be the company commander or the 
executive officer. The duties and responsibilities of the SEO areas follows: 

(1) To advise the unit commander on the employment of snipers. 

(2) To issue orders to the team leader. 

(3) To assign missions and types of employment. 

(4) To coordinate between the sniper team and unit commander. 

(5) To brief the unit commander and team leaders. 

(6) To debrief the unit commander and team leaders. 

(7) To train the teams. 

b. Snipers work and train in 2-man teams. One sniper's primary duty 
is that of the sniper and team leader while the other sniper serves as 
the observer. The sniper team leader is responsible for the day-to-day 
activities of the sniper team. His responsibilities areas follows: 

(1) To assume the responsibilities of the SEO that pertain to the 
team in the SEO'S absence. 



1-2 



FM 23-10 



(2) To train the team. 

(3) To issue necessary orders to the team. 

(4) To prepare for missions. 

(5) To control the team during missions. 

c. The sniper's weapon is the sniper weapon system. The observer 
has the M16 rifle and an M203, which gives the team greater suppressive 
fire and protection. Night capability is enhanced by using night 
observation devices. 

1-3. PERSONNEL SELECTION CRITERIA 

Candidates for sniper training require careful screening. Commanders 
must screen the individual's records for potential aptitude as a sniper. 
The rigorous training program and the increased personal risk in combat 
require high motivation and the ability to learn a variety of skills. 
Aspiring snipers must have an excellent personal record. 

a. The basic guidelines used to screen sniper candidates are 
as follows: 

(1) Marksmanship. The sniper trainee must be an expert marksman. 
Repeated annual qualification as expert is necessary. Successful 
participation in the annual competition-in-arms program and an 
extensive hunting background also mdicate good sniper potential. 

(2) Physical condition. The sniper, often employed in extended 
operations with little sleep, food, or water, must be in outstanding 
physical condition. Good health means better reflexes, better muscular 
control, and greater stamina. The self-confidence and control that come 
from athletics, especially team sports, are definite assets to a sniper trainee. 

(3) Vision. Eyesight is the sniper's prime tool. Therefore, a sniper 
must have 20/20 vision or vision correctable to 20/20. However, wearing 
glasses could become a liability if glasses are lost or damaged. 
Color blindness is also considered a liability to the sniper, due to his 
inability to detect concealed targets that blend in with the 
natural surroundings. 

(4) Smoking, the sniper should not be a smoker or use smokeless 
tobacco. Smoke or an unsuppressed smoker's cough can betray the 
sniper's position. Even though a sniper may not smoke or use smokeless 
tobacco on a mission, his refrainment may cause nervousness and 
irritation, which lowers his efficiency. 

(5) Mental condition. When commanders screen sniper candidates, 
they should look for traits that indicate the candidate has the right 
qualities to be a sniper. The commander must determine if the candidate 
will pull the trigger at the right time and place. Some traits to look for 



1-3 



FM 23-10 

are reliability, initiative, loyalty, discipline, and emotional stability. 
A psychological evaluation or the candidate can aid the commander in the 
selection process. 

(6) Intelligence. A sniper's duties require a wide variety of skills. 
He must learn the following: 

Ballistics. 

Ammunition types and capabilities. 

Adjustment of optical devices. 

Radio operation and procedures. 

Observation and adjustment of mortar and artillery fire. 

Land navigation skills. 

Military intelligence collecting and reporting. 

Identification of threat uniforms and equipment. 

b. In sniper team operations involving prolonged independent 
employment, the sniper must be self-reliant, display good judgment and 
common sense. This requires two other important qualifications: 
emotional balance and field craft. 

(1) Emotional balance. The sniper must be able to calmly and 
deliberately kill targets that may not pose an immediate threat to him. 
It is much easier to kill in self-defense or in the defense of others than it 
is to kill without apparent provocation. The sniper must not be 
susceptible to emotions such as anxiety or remorse. Candidates whose 
motivation toward sniper training rests mainly in the desire for 
prestige may not be capable of the cold rationality that the sniper's 
job requires. 

(2J Field craft. The sniper must be familiar with and comfortable in 
a field environment. An extensive background in the outdoors and 
knowledge of natural occurrences in the outdoors will assist the sniper in 
many ofnis tasks. Individuals with such a background will often have 
great potential as a sniper. 

c. Commander involvement in personnel selection is critical. 
To ensure his candidate's successful completion of sniper training and 
contribution of his talents to his unit's mission, the commander ensures 
that the sniper candidate meets the following prerequisites before 
attending the US Army Sniper School: 

• Male. 

• PFC to SFC (waiverable for MSG and above). 

• Active duty or ARNG and USAR. 

• Good performance record. 



1-4 



FM 23-10 



No history of alcohol or drug abuse. 

A volunteer (with commander recommendation). 

Vision of 20/20 or correctable to 20/20. 

No record of disciplinary action. 

Expert marksman with M16A1 or M16A2 rifle. 

Minimum of one-year retrainability. 

Career management field 11. 

Pass APFT (70 percent, each event). 



1-4. SNIPER AND OBSERVER RESPONSIBILITIES 

Each member of the sniper team has specific responsibilities. Only through 
repeated practice can the team begin to function properly. 
Responsibilities of team members areas follows: 

a. The sniper— 

• Builds a steady, comfortable position. 

• Locates and identifies the designated target. 

• Estimates the range to the target. 

• Dials in the proper elevation and windage to engage 
the target. 

• Notifies the observer of readiness to fire. 

• Takes aim at the designated target. 

• Controls breathing at natural respiratory pause. 

• Executes proper trigger control. 

• Follows through. 

• Makes an accurate and timely shot call. 

• Prepares to fire subsequent shots, if necessary. 

b. The observer— 

• Properly positions himself. 

• Selects an appropriate target. 

• Assists in range estimation. 

• Calculates the effect of existing weather conditions 
on ballistics. 

• Reports sight adjustment data to the sniper. 

• Uses the M49 observation telescope for shot observation. 

• Critiques performance. 

1-5 



FM 23-10 

1-5. TEAM FIRING TECHNIQUES 

A sniper team must be able to move and survive in a combat environment. 
The sniper team's mission is to deliver precision fire. This calls for a 
coordinated team effort. Together, the sniper and observer— 

• Determine the effects of weather on ballistics. 

• Calculate the range to the target. 

• Make necessary sight changes. 

• Observe bullet impact. 

• Critique performance before any subsequent shots. 



1-6 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 2 
EQUIPMENT 

This chapter describes the equipment necessary for the sniper to 
effectively peform his mission. The sniper carries only what is 
essential to successfully complete his mission. He requires a 
durable rifle with the capability of long-range precision fire. The 
current US Army sniper weapon system is the M24. (See Appendix 
Bfor the Mil sniper weapon system.) 

Section I 
M24 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM 

The M24 sniper weapon system is a 7.62-mm, bolt-action, six-shot repeating 
rifle (one round in the chamber and five rounds in the magazine). It is 
designed for use with either the M3A telescope (day optic sight) (usually 
called the M3A scope) or the metallic iron sights. The sniper must know 
the M24's components, and the procedures required to operate them 
(Figure 2-1, page 2-2). The deployment kit is a repair/maintenance kit 
with tools and repair parts for the operator to perform operator level 
maintenance (Figure 2-2, page 2-3.) 



2-1 



FM 23-10 



DAY OPTIC 
CLEANING SIGHT 

DEPLOYMENT KTT 

CASE 



SCOPE 
CASE 




STOCK 



SLINQ 



Figure 2-1 . M24 sniper weapon system. 




Figure 2-2. The deployment kit. 



2-2 



FM 23-10 



1 DEPLOYMENT CASE 

2 FIRING PIN ASSEMBLY 

3 FRONT GUARD SCREW 


22 DAY OPTICT SIGHT ELEVATION 
DIAL WITH SCEWS 

23 DAY OPTIC FOCUS DIAL WITH 
SCREWS 


4 REAR GUARD SCREWS 

5 FRONT SIGHT BASE SCREW 


24 DAY OPTIC SIGHT ADJUSTMENT 
DIAL DUST COVER 


6 SWIVEL SCREW 


25 DAY OPTIC SIGHT RING SCREWS 


7 SWIVEL, SLING 


26 DAY OPTIC SIGHT BASE SCREWS 


8 FRONT SIGHT INSERT KIT 


27 DAY OPTIC SIGHT BASE REAR 


9 REAR SIGHT BASE SCREW 


28 DAY OPTIC SIGHT DUST COVER, 


10 TRIGGER PULL ADJUSTMENT 


FRONT 


SCREW 


29 DAY OPTIC SIGHT DUST COVER, 


11 BRUSH, CLEANING SMALL 


REAR 


12 SOCKET WRENCH ATTACHMENT 
3/8-INCH DRIVE HEX BIT 5/32-INCHES 

13 050-INCH KEY, SOCKET HEAD 
SCREW 


30 BRUSH, CHAMBER 

31 BRUSH, BORE 

32 OIL BOTTLE 


14 1/16-INCH KEY, SOCKET 


33 MAGAZINE SPRING 


15 5/64-INCH KEY, SOCKET HEAD 


34 MAGAZINE FOLLOWER 


SCREW 
16 3/32-INCH KEY, SOCKET HEAD 


35 SOCKET, SOCKET WRENCH 
HEAD SCREW 1/2-INCH 


SCREW 

17 7/64-INCH KEY, SOCKET HEAD 
SCREW 

18 1/8-INCH KEY, SOCKET HEAD 
SCREW 


36 T-HANDLE TORQUE WRENCH 

37 WRENCH, BOX AND OPEN 
1/2-INCH 

38 REAR SIGHT BASE PLUG SCREW 


19 5/32-INCH KEY, SOCKET HEAD 


39 DAY OPTIC SIGHT SUNSHADE 


SCREW 

20 T-HANDLE COMBINATION WRENCH 

21 DAY OPTIC SIGHT WINDAGE DIAL 
WfTH SCREWS 


40 SWABS, CLEANING, SMALL ARMS 

41 CLEANING ROD KIT 

42 LENS CLEANING KIT 



Figure 2-2. The deployment kit (continued). 



2-3 



FM 23-10 



! 'S" POSITION 




"F" POSITION 



2-1. OPERATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 

To operate the M24 sniper weapon system, the sniper must know the 
information and instructions pertaining to the safety, bolt assembly, 
trigger assembly, and stock adjustment. 

a. Safety. The safely is located on the right rear side of the receiver. 
When properly engaged, the safety provides protection against accidental 
discharge in normal usage. 

(l)To engage the safety, 
place it in the S" position 
(Figure 2-3). 

(2) Always place the 
safety in the "S position 
before handling, loading, or 
unloading the weapon. 

(3) When the weapon is 
ready to be fired, place the 
safety in the "F" position 
(Figure 2-3). 

b. Bolt Assembly. The 
bolt assembly locks the 
cartridge into the chamber 
and extracts the cartridge 
from the chamber. 

(1) To remove the bolt 
from the receiver, release the 
internal magazine, place the 
safety in the "S" position, 
raise the bolt handle, and pull 
it back until it stops. Then 
push the bolt stop release 
(Figure 2-4) and pull the bolt 
from the receiver. 

(2) To replace the bolt, 
ensure the safety is in the "S" 
position, align the lugs on the 
bolt assembly with the 
receiver (Figure 2-5), slide 
the bolt all the way into the 
receiver, and then push the 
bolt handle down. 



Figure 2-3. Safety. 




Figure 2-4. Bolt stop release. 




Figure 2-5. Bolt alignment. 



2-4 



FM 23-10 



WARNING 
NEVER REMOVE THE TRIGGER MECHANISM, OR MAKE 
ADJUSTMENTS TO THE TRIGGER ASSEMBLY, EXCEPT 
FOR THE TRIGGER PULL FORCE ADJUSTMENT. 



c. Trigger Assembly. Pulling the trigger fires the rifle when the safety 
is in the F" position. The operator may adjust the trigger pull force from 
a minimum of 2 pounds to a maximum or 8 pounds. This is done using 
the 1/ 16-inch socket head screw key provided in the deployment kit. 
Turning the trigger adjustment screw (Figure 2-6) clockwise increases the 
force needed to pull the trigger. Turning it counterclockwise decreases 
the force needed. This is the only trigger adjustment the sniper 
should make. 




FLOORPLATE 
LATCH 



ADJUSTING 
SCREW 



Figure 2-6. Trigger adjustment. 



d. Stock Adjustment. The M24's 
stock has an adjustable butt plate to 
accommodate the length of pull. 
The stock adjustment (Figure 2-7) 
consists of a thin wheel and a thick 
wheel. The thick wheel adjusts the 
shoulder stock. The thin wheel locks 
the shoulder stock. 

(1) Turn the thick wheel clock- 
wise to lengthen the stock. 

(2) Turn the thick wheel counter- 
clockwise to shorten the stock. 



THIN WHEEL 
\ 



warn 



vml 



THICK WHEEL 



Figure 2-7. Stock adjustment. 



2-5 



FM 23-10 



(3) To lock the shoulder stock into position, turn the thin wheel 
clockwise against the thick wheel. 

(4) To unlock the shoulder stock, turn the thin wheel counter- 
clockwise away from the thick wheel. 

e. Sling Adjustment The sling helps hold the weapon steady 
without muscular effort. The more the muscles are used the harder it is 
to hold the weapon steady. The sling tends to bind the parts of the body 
used in aiming into a rigid bone brace, requiring less effort than would be 
necessary if no sling were used. When properly adjusted, the sling permits 
part of the recoil of the rifle to reabsorbed Tby the nonfiring arm and hand, 
removing recoil from the firing shoulder. 

(1) The sling consists of two different lengths of leather straps joined 
together by a metal D ring (Figure 2-8). The longer strap is connected to 
the sling swivel on the rear stud on the forearm of the rifle. The shorter 
strap is attached to the sling swivel on the buttstock of the rifle. There are 
two leather loops on the long strap known as keepers. The keepers are 
used to adjust the tension on the sling. The frogs are hooks that are used 
to adjust the length of the sling. 




SLING SWIVEL 



SLING XFROG - «™» '" LONG STRAP 



SWIVEL ^ ^ ^^ ____ 

" " ~ FEED END 

\ 

SEWED FOLD j LOOP (D-R.NG) 

KEEPERS 



Figure 2-8. Leather Sling. 



(2) To adjust the sling, the sniper disconnects the sling from the 
buttstock swivel. Then, he adjusts the length of the metal D ring that joins 



2-6 



FM 23-10 



the two halves of the sling. He then makes sure it is even with the comb 
of the stock when attaching the sling to the front swivel (Figure 2-9). 




Figure 2-9. Sling adjustment. 




2-10. Adjusting the length of the sling. 



(3) The sniper 
adjusts the length of 
the sling by placing the 
frog on the long strap 
of the sling in the 4th 
to the 7th set of 
adjustment holes on 
the rounded end of the 
long strap that goes 
through the sling 
swivel on the forearm 
(Figure 2-10). 

(4) After adjust- 
ing the length, the 
sniper places the 
weapon on his firing 
hip and supports the 



2-7 



FM 23-10 



weapon with his firing arm. The sniper turns the sling away from him 
90 degrees and inserts his nonfiring arm. 

(5) The sniper slides the loop m the large section of the sling up the 
nonfiring arm until it is just below the armpit (Figure 2-11). He then 
slides both leather keepers down the sling until they bind the loop snugly 
round the nonfiring arm. 




Figure 2-1 1 . Placing the sling around the nonfiring arm. 



(6) The sniper 
moves his nonfiring 

hand from the outside of 
the sling to the inside of 
the sling between the 
rifle and the sling. The 
sniper then grasps the 
forearm of the weapon, 
just behind the sling 
swivel with his nonfiring 
hand. He forces it 
outward and away from 
his body with the 
nonfiring hand (Figure 
2-12). 

(7) The sniper 
pulls the butt of the 



t\ \'*fr" — ir m 







Figure 2-12. Proper placement of the 
sling. 



2-8 



FM 23-10 



weapon into the pocket of his shoulder with the firing hand. He then 
grasps the weapon at the small of the stock and begins the aiming process. 

2-2. INSPECTION 

The sniper performs PMCS on the M24 SWS. Deficiencies that cannot 
be repaired oy the sniper requires manufacturer repair. He must refer to 
TM 9-1005-306-10 that is furnished with each weapon system. The sniper 
must know this technical manual. He should cheek the following areas 
when inspecting the M24: 

a. Check the appearance and completeness of all parts. 

b. Check the bolt to ensure it locks, unlocks, and moves smoothly. 

c. Check the safety to ensure it can be positively placed into the 'S" 
and "F'positions easily without being too hard or moving too freely. 

d. Check the trigger to ensure the weapon will not fire when the 
safety is in the "S" position, and that it has a smooth, crisp trigger pull 
when the safety is in the "F" position. 

e. Check the trigger guard screws (rear of trigger guard and front of 
internal magazine) for proper torque (65 inch-pounds). 

f. Check the scope mounting ring nuts for proper torque 
(65 inch-pounds). 

g. Check the stock for any cracks, splits, or any contact it may have 
with the barrel. 

h. Inspect the scope for obstructions such as dirt, dust, moisture, or 
loose or damaged lenses. 

2-3. CARE AND MAINTENANCE 

Maintenance is any measure taken to keep the M24 SWS in top 
operating condition. It includes inspection, repair, cleaning and lubrication- 
Inspection reveals the need for repair, cleaning, or lubrication. It also 
reveals any damages or defects. When sheltered in garrison and 
infrequently used, the M24 SWS must be inspected often to detect dirt, 
moisture, and signs of corrosion, and it must be cleaned accordingly. 
The M24 SWS that is in use and subject to the elements, however, requires 
no inspection for cleanliness, since the fact of its use and exposure is 
evidence that it requires repeated cleaning and lubrication. 

a. M24 SWS Maintenance. The following materials are required for 
cleaning and maintaining the M24 SWS: 

• One-piece plastic-coated .30 caliber cleaning rod with jag 
(36 inches). 

• Bronze bristle bore brushes (.30 and .45 calibers). 

• Cleaning patches (small and large sizes). 



2-9 



FM 23-10 

• Carbon cleaner. 

• Copper cleaner. 

• Rust prevention. 

• Cleaner, lubricant, preservative. 

• Rifle grease. 

• Bore guide (long action). 

• Swabs. 

• Pipe cleaners. 

• Medicine dropper. 

• Shaving brush. 

• Pistol cleaning rod. 

• Rags. 

• Camel's-hair brush. 

• Lens tissue. 

• Lens cleaning fluid (denatured or isopropyl alcohol). 

b. M24 SWS Disassembly. The M24 SWS will be disassembled only 
when necessary, not for daily cleaning. For example, when removing an 
obstruction from the SWS that is stuck between the stock and the barrel. 
When disassembly is required, the recommended procedure is as follows: 

• Place the weapon so that is it pointing in a safe direction. 

• Ensure the safety is in the "S" position. 

• Remove the bolt assembly. 

• Loosen the mounting ring nuts on the telescope and remove the 
telescope. 

• Remove the action screws. 

• Lift the stock from the barrel assembly. 

• For further disassembly, refer to TM 9-1005-306-10. 

c. M24 SWS Cleaning Procedures. The M24 SWS must always be 

cleaned before and after firing. 

(1) The SWS must always be cleaned before firing. Firing a weapon 
with a dirty bore or chamber will multiply and speed up any corrosive action. 
Oil in the bore and chamber of a SWS will cause pressures to vary and 
first-round accuracy will suffer. Clean and dry the bore and chamber 
before departure on a mission and use extreme care to keep the SWS clean 
and dry en route to the objective area. Firing a SWS with oil or moisture 
in the bore will cause smoke that can disclose the firing position. 



2-10 



FM 23-10 



(2) The SWS must be cleaned after firing since firing produces 
deposits of primer fouling, powder ashes, carbon, and metal fouling. 
Although ammunition has a noncorrosive primer that makes cleaning 
easier, the primer residue can still cause rust if not removed. Firing leaves 
two major types of fouling that require different solvents to remove 
carbon fouling and copper jacket fouling. The SWS must be cleaned 
within a reasonable time after firing. Use common sense when cleaning 
between rounds of firing. Repeated firing will not injure the weapon if it 
is properly cleaned before the first round is fired. 

(3) Lay the SWS on a table or other flat surface with the muzzle away 
from the body and the sling down. Make sure not to strike the muzzle or 
telescopic sight on the table. The cleaning cradle is ideal for holding 
the SWS. 

(4) Always clean the bore from the chamber toward the muzzle, 
attempting to keep the muzzle lower than the chamber to prevent the bore 
cleaner from running into the receiver or firing mechanism. Be careful 
not to get any type of fluid between the stock and receiver. If fluid does 
collect oetween the stock and receiver, the receiver will slide on the 
bedding every time the SWS recoils, thereby decreasing accuracy and 
increasing wear and tear on the receiver and bedding material. 

(5) Always use a bore guide to keep the cleaning rod centered in the 
bore during the cleaning process. 

(6) Push several patches saturated with carbon cleaner through the 
barrel to loosen the powder fouling and begin the solvent action on the 
copper jacket fouling. 

(7) Saturate the bronze bristle brush (NEVER USE STAINLESS 
STEEL BORE BRUSHES-THEY WILL SCRATCH THE BARREL) 
with carbon cleaner (shake the bottle regularly to keep the ingredients mixed) 
using the medicine dropper to prevent contamination of the carbon cleaner. 
Run the bore brush through at least 20 times. Make sure the bore brush 
passes completely through the barrel before reversing its direction; 
otherwise, the bristles will oreak off. 

(8) Use a pistol cleaning rod and a .45 caliber bronze bristle bore 
brush, clean the chamber by rotating the patch-wrapped brush 8 to 10 times. 
DO NOT scrub the brush in and out or the chamber. 

(9) Push several patches saturated with carbon cleaner through the 
bore to push out the loosened powder fouling. 

(10) Continue using the bore brush and patches with carbon cleaner 
until the patches have no traces of black /gray powder fouling and are 
green/blue. This indicates that the powder fouling has been removed and 
only copper fouling remains. Remove the carbon cleaner from the barrel 



2-11 



FM 23-10 



with several clean patches. This is important since solvents should never 
be mixed in the barrel. 

(11) Push several patches saturated with copper cleaner through the 
bore, using a scrubbing motion to work the solvent into the copper. Let the 
solvent work for 10 to 15 minutes (NEVER LEAVE THE COPPER 
CLEANER IN THE BARREL FOR MORE THAN 30 MINUTES). 

(12) While waiting, scrub the bolt with the toothbrush moistened 
with carbon cleaner and wipe down the remainder of the weapon with a cloth. 

(13) Push several patches saturated with copper cleaner through 
the barrel. The patches will appear dark blue at first, indicating the 
amount of copper fouling removed. Continue this process until the 
saturated patches have no traces of blue/green. If the patches continue to 
come out dark blue after several treatments with copper cleaner, use the 
bronze brush saturated with copper cleaner to increase the scrubbing action. 
Be sure to clean the bronze brush thoroughly afterwards with hot running 
water (quick scrub cleaner/ degreaser is preferred) as the copper cleaner 
acts upon its bristles as well. 

(14) When the barrel is clean, dry it with several tight fitting patches. 
Also, dry the chamber using the .45 caliber bronze bristle bore brush with 
a patch wrapped around it. 

(15) Run a patch saturated with rust prevention (not CLP) down the 
barrel and chamber if the weapon is to be stored for any length of time. 
Stainless steel barrels are not immune from corrosion. Be sure to remove 
the preservative by running dry patches through the bore and chamber 
before firing. 

(16) Place a small amount of rifle grease on the rear surfaces of the 
bolt lugs. This will prevent galling of the metal surfaces. 

(17) Wipe down the exterior of the weapon (if it is not covered with 
camouflage paint) with a CLP-saturated cloth to protect it during storage. 

d. Barrel Break-in Procedure. To increase barrel life, accuracy, and 
reduce cleaning requirement the following barrel break-in procedure must 
be used. This procedure is best accomplished when the dWS is new or 
newly rebarreled. The break-in period is accomplished by polishing the 
barrel surface under heat and pressure. This procedure should only be done 
by qualified personnel. The barrel must be cleaned of all fouling, both 
powder and copper. The barrel is dried, and one round is fired. The barrel 
is then cleaned again using carbon cleaner and then copper cleaner. The barrel 
must be cleaned again, and another round is fired. The procedure must be 
repeated for a total of 10 rounds. After the 10th round the SWS is then 
tested for groups by firing three-round shot groups, with a complete barrel 
cleaning between shot groups for a total of five shot groups (15 rounds total). 



2-12 



FM 23-10 



The barrel is now broken in, and will provide superior accuracy and a 
longer usable barrel life. Additionally, the barrel will be easier to clean 
because the surface is smoother. Again the barrel should be cleaned at 
least every 50 rounds to increase the barrel life. 

e. Storage. The M24 SWS should be stored (Figure 2-13) using the 
following procedures: 

• Gear the SWS, close the bolt, and squeeze the trigger. 

• Open the lens caps to prevent gathering of moisture. 

• Hang the weapon upside down by the rear sling swivel. 

• Place all other items in the system case. 

• Transport the weapon in the system case during nontactical 
situations. 

• Protect the weapon at all times during tactical movement. 



BOLT LUGS EXTRACTOR 




IQQER ASSEMBLY 



Figure 2-13. Maintenance for storing or using. 



NOTE: Rod clean swabs through the bore before firing. 
This procedure ensures first-round accuracy and reduces 
the signature. 



2-13 



FM 23-10 

f. Cold Climates. In temperatures below freezing, the SWS must be 
kept free of moisture and heavy oil, both of which will freeze, causing the 
working parts to freeze or operate sluggishly. The SWS should be stored 
in a room with the temperature equal to the outside temperature. 
When the SWS is taken into a warm area, condensation occurs, thus 
requiring a thorough cleaning and drying before taking it into the cold. 
Otherwise, the condensation causes icing on exposed metal parts and optics. 
The firing pin should be disassembled and cleaned thoroughly with a 
decreasing agent. It should then be lubricated with CLP. Rifle grease 
hardens and causes the firing pin to fall sluggishly. 

g. Salt Water Exposure. Saltwater and saltwater atmosphere have 
extreme and rapid corrosive effects on the metal parts of the SWS. 
During periods of exposure, the SWS must be checked and cleaned as 
often as possible, even if it means only lubricating the SWS. The SWS 
should always be well lubricated, including the bore, except when 
actually firing. Before firing, always run a dry patch through the bore, 
if possible. 

h. Jungle Operations (High Humidity). In hot and humid temper- 
atures, keep the SWS lubricated and cased when not in use. Protect the 
SWS from rain and moisture whenever possible. Keep ammunition clean 
and dry. Clean the SWS, the bore, and the chamber daily. Keep the caps 
on the telescope when not in use. If moisture or fungus develops on the 
inside of the telescope, replace it. Clean and dry the stock daily. Dry the 
carrying case and SWS in the sun whenever possible. 

i. Desert Operations. Keep the SWS dry and free of CLP and grease 
except on the rear of the bolt lugs. Keep the SWS free of sand by using 
the carrying sleeve or carrying case when not in use. Protect the SWS by 
using a wrap. Slide the wrap between the stock and barrel, then cross over 
on top of the scope. Next, cross under the SWS (over the magazine) and 
secure it. The SWS can still be placed into immediate operation but all 
critical parts are covered. The sealed hard case is preferred in the desert 
if the situation permits. Keep the telescope protected from the direct rays 
of the sun. Keep ammunition clean and protected from the direct rays of 
the sun. Use a toothbrush to remove sand from the bolt and receiver. 
Clean the bore and chamber daily. Protect the muzzle and receiver from 
blowing sand by covering with a clean cloth. To protect the free-floating 
barrel of the SWS, take an 8- or 9-inch strip of cloth and tie a knot in 
each end. Before going on a mission, slide the cloth between the barrel 
and stock all the way to the receiver and leave it there. When in position, 
slide the cloth out, taking all restrictive debris and sand with it. 



2-14 



FM 23-10 



2-4. DISASSEMBLY 

Occasionally, the weapon requires disassembly however, this should be 
done only when absolutely necessary, not for daily maintenance. 
An example of this would be to remove an obstruction that is stuck 
between the forestock and the barrel. When disassembly is required, the 
recommended procedure is as follows: 

a. Point the rifle in a safe direction. 

b. Put the safety in the "S" position. 

c. Remove the bolt assembly. 

d. Use the 1/2-inch combination wrench, loosen the front and rear 
mounting ring nuts (Figure 2-14) on the scope, and remove the scope. 




Figure 2-14. Mounting ring nuts. 



e. Loosen the front and rear trigger guard screws (Figure 2-15). 



a 


TRIGGER GUARD SCREWS 
PROPER TORQUE 65 IN-LBS 




■ — ■■ . - — -^Jj^" 




3Jl) 


i C 


W. = 




"^ 







Figure 2-15. Trigger guard screws. 



2-15 



FM 23-10 



f. Lift the stock assembly from the barrel assembly (Figure 2-16). 

g. Reassemble in reverse order. 



M3A DAY OPTIC SIGHT 



4 » 



BOLT ASSEMBLY 




^ 



BARREL ASSEMBLY 




STOCK ASSEMBLY 



X^ "^ 



TRIGGER GUARD 
ASSEMBLY 



Figure 2-1 6. Disassembled weapon. 



WARNING 
ALWAYS KEEP FINGERS AWAY FROM THE TRIGGER 
UNTIL READY TO FIRE, MAKE SURE THE RIFLE IS NOT 
LOADED BY INSPECTING THE MAGAZINE AND CHAMBER, 
USE AUTHORIZED AMMUNITION AND CHECK THE 
CONDITION BEFORE LOADING THE RIFLE. 



2-16 



FM 23-10 



2-5. LOADING AND UNLOADING 

Before loading, the sniper should ensure that the M24 SWS is on SAFE, 
and the bolt is in a forward position. Before unloading, he should ensure 
the M24 SWS is on SAFE, and the bolt is toward the rear. 

a. Loading. The M24 has an internal, five-round capacity magazine. 
To load the rifle— 

(1) Point the weapon in a safe direction. 

(2) Ensure the safety is in the "S" position. 

(3) Raise the bolt handle. Then pull the bolt handle all the way back. 

(4) Push five cartridges of 7.62-mm special ball ammunition one at 
a time through the ejection port into the magazine. Ensure the bullet end 
of the cartridges is aligned toward the chamber. 

(5) To ensure proper functioning, cartridges should be set fully 
rearward in the magazine. 

(6) Use a finger to push the cartridges into the magazine and all the 
way down. Slowly slide the bolt forward so that the bolt slides over the 
top of the cartridges in the magazine. 

(7) Push the bolt handle down. The magazine is now loaded. 

(8) To chamber a cartridge, raise the bolt and pull it back until it stops. 

(9) Push the bolt forward. The bolt removes a cartridge from the 
magazine and pushes it into the chamber. 

(10) Push the bolt handle down. 

(11) To fire, place the safety in the "F" position and squeeze 
the trigger. 



WARNING 

ENSURE THE CHAMBER AND MAGAZINE ARE CLEAR OF 
CARTRIDGES. 



b. Unloading. To unload the M24 SWS- 

(1) Point the muzzle in a safe direction. 

(2) Ensure the safety is in the "S" position. 

(3) Raise the bolt handle. 

(4) Put one hand over the top ejection port. Slowly pull the bolt handle 
back with the other hand to remove the cartridge from the chamber. 

(5) Remove the cartridge from the rifle. 

(6) Put a hand under the floor plate. 

(7) Push the floor plate latch to release the floor plate (Figure 2-17, 
page 2-18). The magazine spring and follower will be released from 
the magazine. 

(8) Remove the released cartridges. 



2-17 



FM 23-10 

(9) Push in the magazine follower, then close the floor plate. 




Figure 2-17. Floor plate latch. 

2-6. STORAGE 

The M24 SWS should be stored as follows: 

a. Hang the weapon in an upside down position by the rear 
sling swivel. 

b. Close the bolt and squeeze the trigger. 

c. Open the lens caps to prevent gathering of moisture. 

d. Place all other items in the system case. 

e. Protect the weapon at all times during tactical movement. 
(See Chapter 4.) 

Section II 
AMMUNITION 

The sniper uses the 7.62-mm special ball (M118) ammunition with the 
sniper weapon system. The sniper must rezero the weapon each time he 
fires a different type or lot of ammunition. This information should be 
maintained in the sniper data book. 

2-7. TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS 

The types and characteristics of sniper ammunition are described in 
this paragraph. 

a. M118 Special Ball Bullet. The 7.62-mm special ball (M118) bullet 
consists of a gilding metal jacket and a lead antimony slug. It is a 
boat-tailed bullet (rear of bullet is tapered) and weighs 173 grains. The tip 
of the bullet is not colored. The base of the cartridge is stamped with the 
year of manufacture and a circle that has vertical and horizontal lines, 
sectioning it into quarters. Its spread (accuracy standard) for a 10-shot 
group is no more than 12 inches at 550 meters (fired from an accuracy 
barrel in a test cradle). 



2-18 



FM 23-10 



b. M82 Blank Ammunition. The 7.62-mm M82 blank ammunition 
is used during sniper field training. It provides the muzzle blast and flash 
that can be detected by trainers during the exercises that evaluate the 
sniper's ability to conceal himself while firing his weapon. 

NOTE: Regular 7.62-mm ball ammunition should be used only 
in an emergency situation. No damage will occur to the barrel 
when firing regular 7.62-mm ball ammunition. The M3A 
scope's bullet drop compensator is designed for M118 special 
ball, and there will be a significant change in zero. Therefore the 
rifle will not be as accurate when firing regular 7.62-mm ball 
ammunition. The 7.62-mm ball ammunition should be test fired 
and the ballistic data recorded in the data book. 

2-8. ROUND-COUNT BOOK 

The sniper maintains a log of the number of cartridge fired through the 
M24 SWS. It is imperative to accurately maintain the round-count 
book as the barrel should be replaced after 5,000 rounds of firing. 
The round-count book is issued and maintained in the arms room. 

2-9. M24 MALFUNCTIONS AND CORRECTIONS 

Table 2-1 does not reflect all malfunctions that can occur, or all causes and 
corrective actions. If a malfunction is not correctable, the complete 
weapon system must be turned in to the proper maintenance /supply 
channel for return to the contractor (see shipment, TM 9-1 005-306-10) . 



2-19 



FM 23-10 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


Fail to fire 


Safety in "S" 
position 


1. Move safety to "F" position 




Defective 
ammunition 


2. Eject cartridge 




Firing pin 
damaged 


3. Change firing pin assembly 




Firing pin binds 


4. Change firing pin assembly 




Firing pin 
protrudes 


5. Change firing pin assembly 




Firing control 
out of 
adjustment 


6. Turn complete system in to 
the maintenance/supply 
channel for return to 
contractor 




Trigger out of 
adjustment 


7. Turn in as above 




Trigger does 
not retract 


8. Turn in as above 




Trigger binds 
on trigger guard 


9. Turn in as above 




Firing pin does 
not remain in 
the cocked 
position with 
bolt closed 


10. Turn in as above 


Bolt binds 


Action screw 
protudes into 
bolt track 


11. Turn in as above 




Scope base 
protrudes into 
bolt track 


12. Turn in as above 



Table 2-1. M24 malfunctions and corrections. 



2-20 



FM 23-10 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


Fail to feed 


Bolt override of 
cartridge 

Cartridges 
stems chamber 

Magazine in 
backward 

Weak or broken 
magazine spring 


13. Seat cartridge fully 
rearward in magazine 

14. Pull bolt fully rearward; 
remove stemmed cartridge 
from ejection port area; 
reposition cartridge fully in 
magazine 

15. Remove magazine spring, 
and reinstall with long leg 
follower 

16. Replace spring 


Fail to eject 


Broken ejector 

Fouled ejector 
plunger 


17. Turn the complete weapon 
system in to the 
maintenance/supply 
channel for return to 
contractor 

18. Inspect and clean bolt 
face; if malfunction 
continues, turn in as 
above 


Fail to 
extract 


Broken extractor 


19. Turn in as above 



Table 2-1. M24 malfunctions and corrections 
(continued). 



2-21 



FM 23-10 



Section III 
SNIPER SIGHTING DEVICES 

The sniper has two sighting devices: the M3A scope and iron sights. 
The M3A scope allows the sniper to see the cross hairs and the image of 
the target with identical sharpness. It can be easily removed and replaced 
with less than 1/2 minute of angle change in zero. However, the M3A 
scope should be left on the rifle. Iron sights are used only as a backup 
sighting system and can be quickly installed. 

2-10. M3A SCOPE 

The M3A scope is an optical instrument that the sniper uses to improve 
his ability to see his target clearly in most situations. Usually, the 
M3A scope presents the target at an increased size (as governed by scope 
magnification), relative to the same target at the same distance without a 
scope. The M3A scope helps the sniper to identify recognize the target. 
His increased sighting ability also helps him to successfully engage 
the target. 

NOTE: The adjustment dials are under the adjustment 
dust cover. 

a. M3A Scope Adjustments. The sniper must use the following 
adjustment procedures on the M3A scope: 

(1) Focus adjustment dial. The focus adjustment dial (Figure 2-18) is 
on the left side of the scope barrel. This dial has limiting stops with the 
two extreme positions shown by the infinity mark and the largest dot. 
The focus adjustment dial keeps the target in focus. If the target is close, 
the dial is set at a position near the largest dot. 

NOTE: Each minute of angle is an angular unit of measure. 

(2) Elevation adjustment dial. The elevation adjustment dial 
(Figure 2-18) is on top of the scope barrel. This dial has calibrated index 
markings from 1 to 10. These markings represent the elevation setting 
adjustments needed at varying distances: 1 = 100 meters, 3 = 300 
meters, 7 = 700 meters, and so on. Each click of the elevation dial equals 
1 minute of angle. 

(3) Windage adjustment dial. The windage adjustment dial 
(Figure 2-18) is on the right side of the scope barrel. This dial is used to 
malce lateral adjustments to the scope. Turning the dial in the indicated 
direction moves the point of impact in that direction. Each click on the 
windage dial equals .5 minute or angle. 



2-22 



FM 23-10 



ELEVATION 

Each click = 
1 minute of angle 



FOCUS 

Near (largest dot) 
to Infinity (») 




WINDAGE 

Each click = 
.5 minute of angle 



Figure 2-1 8. Focus, elevation, and windage 
adjustment dials. 

(4) Eyepiece adjustment. The eyepiece (Figure 2-19) is adjusted by 
turning it in or out of the barrel until the reticle appears crisp and clear. 
Focusing the eyepiece should be done after mounting the scope. 
The sniper grasps the eyepiece and backs it away from the lock ring. 
He does not attempt to loosen the lock ring first; it loosens automatically 
when he backs away from the eyepiece (no tools needed). The eyepiece 
is turned several turns to move it at least 1/8 inch. It takes this much 
change to achieve any measurable effect on the focus. The sniper looks 
through the scope at the sky or a blank wall and checks to see if the reticle 
appears sharp and crisp. He locks the lock ring after achieving 
reticle clarity. 




Figure 2-19. Eyepiece adjustment. 



2-23 



FM 23-10 



WARNINGS 

1. SECURELY FASTEN THE MOUNTING BASE TO THE 
RIFLE. LOOSE MOUNTING MAY CAUSE THE M3A SCOPE 
AND BASE MOUNT ASSEMBLY TO COME OFF THE RIFLE 
WHEN FIRING, POSSIBLY INJURING THE FIRER. 

2. DURING RECOIL PREVENT THE M3A SCOPE FROM 
STRIKING THE FACE BY MAINTAINING AN AVERAGE 
DISTANCE OF 2 TO 3 INCHES BETWEEN THE EYE AND 
THE SCOPE. 



b. M3A Scope Mount. The M3A scope mount has a baseplate with 
four screws; a pair of scope rings with eight ring screws, each with an upper 
and lower ring half with eight ring screws and two ring mounting bolts 
with nuts (Figure 2-20). The baseplate is mounted to the rifle by screwing 
the four baseplate screws through the plate and into the top of 
the receiver. The screws must not protrude into the receiver and 
interrupt the functioning of the bolt. After the baseplate is mounted, the 
scope rings are mounted. 

NOTE: The M3A scope has two sets of mounting slots. 
The sniper selects the set of slots that provides proper eye relief 
(the distance that the eye is positioned behind the telescopic sight). 
The average distance is 2 to 3 inches. The sniper adjusts eye 
relief to obtain a full field of view. 




Figure 2-20. Scope mount. 



2-24 



FM 23-10 

(1) Before mounting the M3A scope, lubricate the threads of each 
mounting ring nut. 

(2) Ensure smooth movement of each mounting ring nut and 
mount claw. 

(3) Inspect for burrs and foreign matter between each mounting ring 
nut and mount claw. Remove burrs or foreign matter before mounting. 

(4) Mount the sight and rings to the base. 

NOTE: Once a set of slots is chosen, the same set should always 
be used in order for the SWS to retain zero. 

(5) Ensure the mounting surface is free of dirt, oil, or grease. 

(6) Set each ring bolt spline into the selected slot. 

(7) Slide the rear mount claw against the base and finger-tighten the 
mounting ring nut. 

(8) If the scope needs to be adjusted loosen the mounting ring nuts and 
align the ring bolts with the other set of slots on the base Repeat this process. 

(9) Slide the front mount claw against the base, and finger-tighten 
the mounting ring nut. 

(10) Use the T-handle torque wrench, which is preset to 65inch-pounds, 
to tighten the rear mounting ring nut. 

c. Care and Maintenance of the M3A Scope. Dirt, rough handling, 
or abuse of optical equipment will result in inaccuracy and malfunction. 
When not in use, the rifle and scope should be cased, and the lens should 
be capped. 

(1) Lens. The lens are coated with a special magnesium fluoride 
reflection-reducing material. This coat is thin and great care is required 
to prevent damage to it. 

(a) To remove dust, lint, or other foreign matter from the lens, lightly 
brush the lens with a clean camel's-hair brush. 

(b) To remove oil or grease from the optical surfaces, apply a drop 
of lens cleaning fluid or robbing alcohol on a lens tissue. Carefully wipe 
off the surface of the lens in circular motions (from the center to the 
outside edge). Dry off the lens with a clean lens tissue. In the field, if the 
proper supplies are not available, breathe heavily on the glass and wipe 
with a soft, clean cloth. 

(2) Scope. The scope is a delicate instrument and must be handled 
with care. The following precautions will prevent damage 

(a) Check and tighten all mounting screws periodically and always 
before an operation. Be careful not to change the coarse windage 
adjustment. 



2-25 



FM 23-10 

(b) Keep the lens free from oil and grease and never touch them with 
the fingers. Body grease and perspiration can injure them. Keep the cap 
on the lens. 

(c) Do not force the elevation and windage screws or knobs. 

(d) Do not allow the scope to remain in direct sunlight, and avoid 
letting the sun's rays shine through the lens. The lens magnify and 
concentrate sunlight into a pinpoint of intense heat, which is focused on 
the mil-scale reticle. This may melt the mil dots and damage the 
scope internally. Keep the lens covered and the entire scope covered 
when not in use. 

(e) Avoid dropping the scope or striking it with another object. 
This could permanently damage the telescope as well as change the zero. 

(f) To avoid damage to the scope or any other piece of sniper 
equipment, snipers or armorers should be the only personnel handling 
the equipment. Anyone who does not know how to use this equipment 
could cause damage. 

(3) Climate conditions. Climate conditions play an important part in 
taking care of optical equipment. 

(a) Cold climates, fn extreme cold, care must be taken to avoid 
condensation and congealing of oil on the glass of the optical equipment. 
If the temperature is not excessive, condensation can be removed by 
placing the instrument in a warm place. Concentrated heat must not be 
applied because it causes expansion and damage can occur. Moisture may 
also be blotted from the optics with lens tissue or a soft, dry cloth. In cold 
temperatures, oil thickens and causes sluggish operation or failure. 
Focusing parts are sensitive to freezing oils. Breathing forms frost, so the 
optical surfaces must be cleaned withlens tissue, preferably dampened 
lightly with alcohol. DO NOT apply alcohol on the glass of the optics. 

(b) jungle operations (high humidity). In hot and humid temperatures, 
keep the caps on the scope when not in use. If moisture or fungus 
develops on the inside of the telescope, replace it. 

(c) Desert operations. Keep the scope protected from the direct rays, 
of the sun. 

(d) Hot climate and salt water exposure. The scope is vulnerable to 
hot, humid climates and salt water atmosphere. It MUST NOT be 
exposed to direct sunlight. In humid and salt air conditions, the scope 
must be inspected, cleaned, and lightly oiled to avoid rust and corrosion. 
Perspiration can also cause the equipment to rust; therefore, the 
instruments must be thoroughly dried and lightly oiled. 

d. M3A Scope Operation. When using the M3A scope, the sniper 
looks at the target and determines the distance to it by using the mil dots 



2-26 



FM 23-10 



on the reticle. The mil-dot reticle (Figure 2-21) is a duplex-style reticle 
that has thick outer sections and thin inner sections. Superimposed on 
the thin center section of the reticle is a series of dots. There are 4 dots 
on each side of the center and 4 dots above and below the center. 
These 4 dots are spaced 1 mil apart, and 1 mil from both the center and 
the start of the thick section of the reticle. This spacing allows the sniper 
to make close estimates of target range, assuming there is an object of 
known size (estimate) in the field of view. For example, a human target 
appears to be 6 feet tall, which equals 1.83 meters tali, and at 500 meters, 
3.o5 dots high (nominally, about 3.5 dots high). Another example is a 
1-meter target at a 1,000-meter range. This target is the height between 
2 dots, or the width between 2 dots. If the sniper is given a good estimate 
of the object's size, then he may accurately determine target range using 
the mil-dot system. 




Figure 2-21. Mil-dot reticle. 



2-27 



FM 23-10 

e. Zeroing. Zeroing the M3A scope should be done on a 

known-distance range (preferably 900 meters long) with bull's-eye-type 
targets (200-yard targets, NSN SR1-6920-00-900-8204). When zeroing 
the scope, the sniper— 

(1) Assumes a good prone-supported position 100 meters from 
the target. 

(2) ensures the "1" on the elevation dial is lined up with the elevation 
index line, and the "0" on the windage dial is lined up with the windage 
index line. 

(3) Fires three rounds at the center of the target, keeping the same 
aiming point each time and triangulate. 

(4) After the strike of the rounds has been noted, turns the elevation 
and windage dials to make the needed adjustments to the scope. 

• Each click on the elevation dial equals one minute of angle. 

• One minute of angle at 100 meters equals 1.145 inches or about 
1 inch. 

• Each click on the windage dial equals .5 minute of angle. 

• .5 minute of angle at 100 meters equals about .5 inch. 

(5) Repeats steps 3 and 4 until a three-round shot group is centered 
on the target. 

(6) Once the shot group is centered, loosens the hex head screws on 
the elevation and windage dials. He turns the elevation dial to the index 
line marked "1" (if needed). He turns the windage dial to the index line 
marked "0" (if needed) and tighten the hex head screws. 

(7) After zeroing at 100 meters and calibrating the dial, confirms this 
zero by firing and recording sight settings (see Chapter 3) at 100-meter 
increments through 900 meters. 

f. Field-Expedient Confirmation/Zeroing. The sniper may need to 
confirm zero in a field environment. Examples are shortly after 
receiving a mission, a weapon was dropped, or excessive climatic changes 
as may oe experienced oy deploying to another part of the world. 
Two techniques of achieving a crude zero are the 25-yard/900-inch method 
and the observation of impact method. 

(1) 25-yardl900-inch method. Dial the scope to 300 meters for 
elevation and to "0" for windage. Aim and fire at a target that is at a 
25-yard distance. Adjust the scope until rounds are impacting 5/8 of an 
inch above the point of aim. To confirm, set the elevation to 500 meters. 
The rounds should impact 21/4 inches above the point of aim. 

(2) Observation of impact method. When a known distance range is 
unavailable, locate a target so that the observer can see the impact of 



2-28 



FM 23-10 



rounds clearly. Determine the exact range to the target, dial in the 
appropriate range, and fire. Watch the impact of the rounds; the observer 
gives the sight adjustments until a pomt of aim or point of impact 

is achieved. 

2-11. IRON SIGHTS 

Depending on the situation, a sniper may be required to deliver an 
effective shot at ranges up to 900 meters or more. This requires the sniper 
to zero his rifle with the iron sights and the M3A scope at most ranges 
that he can be expected to fire. 

a. Mounting. To mount iron sights, the sniper must remove the 
M3A scope first. 

(1) Attach the front sight to the barrel, align the front sight and the 
front sight base, and slide the sight over the base and tighten the screw 
(Figure 2-22). 



FRONT SIGHT 



FRONT SIGHT BASE 




Figure 2-22. Front sight attachment. 



(2) The aperture insert may be either skeleton or translucent plastic 
(Figure 2-23, page 2-30). The skeleton aperture is the most widely used. 
The translucent plastic aperture is preferred by some shooters and is 
available in clear plastic. Both apertures are available in various sizes. 
A common error is selecting an aperture that is too small. Select an 
aperture that appears to be at least twice the diameter of the bull's-eye. 
An aperture selected under one light condition may, under a different 
light, form a halo around the bull or make the bull appear indistinct 
or oblong. The aperture selected should reveal a wide line of white 
around the bull and allow the bull to standout in clear definition against 
this background. 



2-29 



FM 23-10 




SIGHT ALIGNMENT SIGHT PICTURE SIGHT PICTURE 

APERTURE FRONT APERTURE FRONT INSERTS IN 

SIGHT SIGHT COMBINATION 



Figure 2-23. Aperture insert. 

(3) Remove one of the three sets of screws from the rear sight base 
locatea on the left rear of the receiver. Align the rear sight with the rear sight 
base taking care to use the hole that provides the operator the desired 
eye relief. Then tighten the screw to secure the rear sight to the base. 

NOTE: Operator-desired eye relief determines the set screw 
that must oe removed. 

b. Adjustment Scales. Adjustment scales are of the vernier type. 
Each graduation on the scale inscribed on the sight base equals 3 minutes 
of angle. (See the minutes of angle chart in Chapter 3.) Each graduation 
of the adjustable scale plates equals 1 minute of angle. To use the 
vernier-type adjustment scales— 

(1) Note the point at which graduations on both the top and the 
bottom scales are aligned. 

(2) Count the numbers of full 3 minutes of angle graduations from 
"0" on the fixed scale to "0" on the adjustable scale. Add this figure to the 
number of 1 minute of angle graduations from "0" on the adjustable scale 
to the point where the two graduations are aligned. 

c. Zeroing. Zeroing iron sights should be done on the same type of 
range and targets as in paragraph 2-10a. To set a mechanical zero on the 
iron sights for windage, the sniper turns the windage dial all the way to 
the left or right, then lie counts the number of clicks it takes to get from 
one side to the other. He divides this number by 2 — for example, 
120 divided by 2 equals 60. The sniper turns the windage dial 60 clicks 



2-30 



FM 23-10 

back to the center. If the two zeros on the windage indicator plate do not 
align, he loosens the screw on the windage indicator plate and aligns the 
two zeros. The sniper uses the same procedure to set a mechanical zero 
for elevation. Once a mechanical zero has been set, he assumes a good 
prone-supported position, 100 meters from the target. He fires three 
rounds at the center of the target, observing the same aiming point 
each time. After noting the strike of the rounds, the sniper turns the 
elevation and windage dials to make needed adjustments to the iron sights 
as follows (Figure 2-24): 





WINDAGE INDICATOR PLATE 




\ 


WINDAGE KNOB 


ELEVATION KNOB 

SPRING TENSION 
SCREW 
i 




SET SCREW 




jT^^sJ 








^^jiwv 1 




(3 






^*^m*r/ * 


Mil 








1 ^ 








IL^J*f 1*1 




EYEPIECE 


ELEVATION 1 

INDICATOR 1 

PLATE 1 


* £. 1 


C$7 





Figure 2-24. Zeroing adjustment dials. 



2-31 



FM 23-10 



(1) Each click of adjustment is 1/4 minute of angle (one minute of 
angle equals about 1 inch at 100 yards, 6 inches at 600 yards, and so forth). 
There are twelve 1/4 minutes of angle, equaling 3 minutes of angle 
adjustments in each dial revolution. The total elevation adjustment is 
60 minutes of angle (600 inches at 1,000 yards) total windage adjustment 
is 36 minutes of angle (360 inches at 1,000 yards). 

(2) Turn the elevation dial in the direction marked UP to raise the 
point of impact: turn the elevation dial in the opposite direction to lower 
the point of impact. Turn the windage dial in the direction marked R to 
move the point of impact to the right; then turn the windage dial in the 
opposite direction to move the point of impact to the left. 

(3) Continue firing and adjusting shot groups until the point of aim 
or point of impact is achieved. 

After zeroing the rifle sight to the preferred range, the sniper loosens the 
elevation and windage indicator plate screws with the socket head screw 
key provided. Now, he loosens the spring tension screw, aligns the "0" on 
the plate with the "0" on the sight body, and retightens the plate screws. 
Then the sniper loosens the spring tension screws and set screws in each 
dial, and aligns the "0" of the dial with the reference line on the sight. 
He presses the dial against the sight, tightens the set screws, and equally 
tightens the spring tension screws until a definite "click" can be felt when 
the dial is turned. This click can be sharpened or softened to preference 
by equally loosening or tightening the spring screws on each dial. 
The sniper makes windage and elevation corrections, and returns quickly 
to "zero" standard. 

Section IV 
OTHER EQUIPMENT 

The sniper must use special equipment to reduce the possibility of 
detection. The types and characteristics are discussed in this section. 

2-12. M16A1/A2 RIFLE WITH M203 GRENADE LAUNCHER 

The observer carries the M16A1/A2 rifle with the M203 grenade launcher. 
The sniper, carrying the M24 SWS, lacks the firepower required to break 
contact with enemy forces-that is, ambush or chance contact. 
The rapid-fire ability of the M16A1/A2 rifle, combined with the 
destructive abilities of the M203 40-mm grenade launcher (Figure 2-25), 
gives the sniper team a lightweight, easily operated way to deliver the 
firepower required to break contact. (See FM 23-9 and FM 23-31, 
respectively, for the technical characteristics of these weapons.) 



2-32 



FM 23-10 





1 1 m ■ U U (1 U U U Hfl ^rF * n 


W$L^Jy 





Figure 2-25. The M203 40-mm grenade launcher 
attached to M16A1 rifle. 



2-13. IMAGE INTENSIFICATION AND INFRARED DEVICES 

The sniper team employs night and limited visibility devices to conduct 
continuous operations. 

a. Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-4. The AN/PVS-4 is a portable, 
battery-operated, electro-optical instrument that can be hand-held for 
visual observation or weapon-mounted for precision fire at night 
(Figure 2-26). The observer can detect and resolve distant targets 
through the unique capability of the sight to amplify reflected ambient 
light (moon, stars, or sky glow). The sight is passive thus, it is free from 
enemy detection by visual or electronic means. This sight, with 
appropriate weapons adapter bracket, can be mounted on the M16 rifle. 




Figure 2-26. Night vision sight, AN/PVS-4. 

(1) Uses. The M16 rifle with the mounted AN/PVS-4 is effective in 
achieving a first-round hit out to and beyond 300 meters, depending on 
the light conditions. The AN/PVS-4 is mounted on the Ml6 since the 



2-33 



FM 23-10 



nightsight's limited range does not make its use practical for the sniper 
weapon system. This avoids problems that may occur when removing and 
replacing the sniperscope. The nightsight provides an effective 
observation ability during night combat operations. The sight does not 
give the width, depth, or clarity of daylight vision; however, a well-trained 
operator can see enough to analyze the tactical situation, to detect enemy 
targets, and to place effective fire on them. The sniper team uses the 
AN/PVS-4 to accomplish the following: 

(a) To enhance their night observation capability. 

(b) To locate and suppress hostile fire at night. 

(c) To deny enemy movement at night. 

(d) To demoralize the enemy with effective first-round kills at night. 

(2) Employment factors. Since the sight requires target illumination 
and does not project its own light source, it will not function in 
total darkness. The sight works best on a bright, moonlit night. 
When there is no light or the ambient light level is low (such as in heavy 
vegetation), the use of artificial or infrared light improves the 
sight's performance. 

(a) Fog, smoke, dust, hail, or rain limit the range and decrease the 
resolution of the instrument. 

(b) The sight does not allow seeing through objects in the field 
of view. For example, the operator win experience the same range 
restrictions when viewing dense wood lines as he would when using other 
optical sights. 

(c) The observer may experience eye fatigue when viewing for 
prolonged periods. Viewing should be limited to 10 minutes, followed by 
a rest period of 10 minutes. After several periods of viewing, he can safely 
extend this time limit. To assist in maintaining a continuous viewing, 
capability and to reduce eye fatigue, the observer should use one eye then 
the other while viewing through the sight. 

(3) Zeroing. The operator may zero the sight during daylight or 
darkness; however, he may have some difficulty in zeroing just 1 
before darkness. The light level at dusk is too low to permit the operator 
to resolve his zero target with the lens cap cover in place, but it is still 
intense enough to cause the sight to automatically tumoff unless the lens 
cap cover is m position over the objective lens. The sniper normally zeros 
the sight for the maximum practical range that he can be expected to 
observe and fire, depending on the level of light. 

b. Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-5. The AN/PVS-5 is a lightweight, 
passive night vision system that gives the sniper team another means of 



2-34 



FM 23-10 



observing an area during darkness (Figure 2-27). The sniper normally carries 
the goggles, because the observer has the M16 mounted with the nightsight. 
The goggles make it easier to see due to their design. However, the same 
limitations that apply to the nightsight also apply to the goggles. 




Figure 2-27. Night vision goggles, AN/PVS-5. 

c. Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-7 Series. The night vision goggles, 
AN/PVS-7 series (Figure 2-28, page 2-36) has a better resolution and 
viewing ability than the AN/PVS-5 goggles. The AN/PVS-7 series goggles 
have aliead-mount assembly that allows them to be mounted in front of 
the face so that both hands can be free. The goggles can be used without 
the mount assembly for hand-held viewing. (See TM 11-5855-262-10-1.) 

d. Laser Observation Set AN/GVS-5. Depending on the mission, 
snipers can use the AN/GVS-5 to determine the range to the target. 
The AN/GVS-5 (LR) (Figure 2-29, page 2-36) is an individually operated, 
hand-held, distance-measuring device designed for distances from 200 to 
9,990 meters (with an error of plus or minus 10 meters). It measures 
distances by firing an infrared beam at a target and by measuring the time 
the reflected beam takes to return to the operator. It then displays the 
target distance, in meters, inside the viewer. The reticle pattern in the 
viewer is graduated in 10-mil increments and has display lights to indicate 
low battery and multiple target hits. If the beam hits more than one 
target, the display gives a reading of the closest target hit. The beam that 
is fired from the set poses a safety hazard; therefore, snipers planning to 
use this equipment should be thoroughly trained in its safe operation. 
(See TM 11-5860-201-10.) 



2-35 



FM 23-10 




Figure 2-28. Night vision goggles, AN/PVS-7 series. 




Figure 2-29. Laser observation set, AN/GVS-5. 



2-36 



FM 23-10 



e. Mini-Eye safe Laser Infrared Observation Set, AN/PVS-6. 

The AN/PVS-6 (Figure 2-30) contains the following components: 
mini-eyesafe laser range finder; batteries, BA-6516/U, nonrechargeable, 
lithium thionyl chloride; 
carrying case; shipping case; 
tripod; lens cleaning com- 
pound and lens cleaning 
tissue; and operator's manual. 
The laser range finder is the 
major component of the 
AN/PVS-6. It is lightweight, 
individually operated, and 
hand-held or tripod mounted; 
it can accurately determine 
ranges from 50 to 9,995 meters 
in 5-meter increments and 
displays the range in the 
eyepiece. It can also be 
mounted with and bore- 
sighted to the night obser- Figure 2-30. Mlnl-eyesafe laser 
vation device, AN/TAS-6, infrared observation set, 

long-range. AV/PVS-6. 





SYS 


// / / 



2-14. M49 OBSERVATION TELESCOPE 

The M49 observation telescope is a prismatic optical instrument of 
20-power magnification (Figure 2-31, page 2-38). The telescope is 
focused by turning the eyepiece in or out until the image of the object 
being viewed is crisp and clear to the viewer. The sniper team carries the 
telescope on all missions. The observer uses the telescope to determine 
wind speed and direction by reading mirage, observing the bullet trace, 
and observing the bullet impact. The sniper uses this information to 
make quick and accurate adjustments for wind conditions. The lens are 
coated with a hard film of magnesium fluoride for maximum light 
transmission. Its high magnification makes observation, target detection, 
and target identification possible where conditions and range would 
otherwise preclude this ability. Camouflaged targets and those in deep 
shadows can be more readily distinguished. The team can observe troop 
movements at greater distances and identify selective targets with ease. 



2-37 



FM 23-10 



EYEPIECE COVER 




LENS COVER 



M1 5 TRIPOD 



Figure 2-31. M49 observation telescope. 

a. Components. Components of the telescope include a removable 
eyepiece and objective lens covers, an M15 tripod with canvas carrier, and 
a hard ease carrier for the telescope. 

b. Storage. When storing the M49 observation telescope, the sniper 
must remove it from the hard case earner and remove the lens caps to 
prevent moisture from gathering on the inside of the scope. Maintenance 
consists of— 

(1) Wiping dirt and foreign materials from the scope tube, hard case 
carrier, and M15 tripod with a damp rag. 

(2) Cleaning the M49 lens with lens cleaning solution and lens 
tissue only. 

(3) Brushing dirt and foreign agents from the M15 carrying case with 
a stiff -bristled brush; cleaning the threading of lens caps on the M49 and 
the tripod elevation adjustment screw on the M15 with a toothbrush, then 
applying a thin coat of grease and moving the lens caps and elevation 
adjustment screw back and forth to evenly coat threading. 



2-38 



FM 23-10 



2-15. M19 BINOCULARS 

The M19 is the preferred optical instrument for conducting hasty scans. 
This binocular (Figure 2-32) has 7-power magnification with a 50-mm 
objective lens, and an interpupillary scale located on the hinge. The sniper 
should adjust the binocular until one sharp circle appears while looking 
through them. After adjusting the binoculars' interpupillary distance 
(distance between a person's pupils), the sniper should make a mental 
note of the reading on this scale for future reference. The eyepieces are 
also adjustable. The sniper can adjust one eyepiece at a time by turning 
the eyepiece with one hand while placing the palm of the other hand over 
the objective lens of the other monocular. While keeping both eyes open, 
he adjusts the eyepiece until he can see a crisp, clear view. After one eyepiece 
is adjusted, he repeats the procedure with the remaining eyepiece. 
The sniper should also make a mental note of the diopter scale reading 
on both eyepieces for future reference. One side of the binoculars has a 
laminated reticle pattern (Figure 2-32) that consists of a vertical and 
horizontal mil scale that is graduated in 10-mil increments. Using this 
reticle pattern aids the sniper in determining range and adjusting 
indirect-fires. The sniper uses the binoculars for— 

• Calling for and adjusting indirect fires. 

• Observing target areas. 

• Observing enemy movement and positions. 

• Identifying aircraft. 

• Improving low-light level viewing. 

• Estimating range. 




Figure 2-32. M19 binoculars and reticle. 



2-39 



FM 23-10 



2-16. M22 BINOCULARS 

The M22 binoculars (Figure 2-33) can be used instead of the M19. 
These binoculars have the same features as the M19, plus fold-down 
eyepiece cups for personnel who wear glasses to reduce the distance 
between the eyes and the eyepiece. It also has protective covers for the 
objective and eyepiece lenses. The binoculars have laser protection filters 
on the inside of the objective lenses (direct sunlight can reflect off 
these lenses). The reticle pattern (Figure 2-33) is different than the 
M19 binocular reticle. 




Figure 2-33. M22 binoculars and reticle. 

2-17. OTHER SNIPER EQUIPMENT 

Other equipment the sniper needs to complete a successful 

mission follows: 

a. Sidearms. Each member of the team should have a sidearm, such 
as an M9, 9-mm Beretta, or a caliber .45 pistol. A sidearm gives a sniper 
the needed protection from a nearby threat while on the ground movmg 
or while in the confines of a sniper position. 

b. Compass. Each member of the sniper team must have a lensatic 
compass for land navigation. 

c. Maps. The team must have military maps of their area 
of operations. 

d. Calculator. The sniper team needs a pocket-size calculator to 
figure distances when using the mil-relation formula. Solar-powered 
calculators usually work well, but under low-light conditions, battery 
power may be preferred. If a battery-powered calculator is to be used in 
low-light conditions, it should have a lighted display. 



2-40 



FM 23-10 



e. Rucksack. The sniper's rucksack should contain at least a 
two-quart canteen, an entrenching tool, a first-aid kit, pruning shears, a 
sewing kit with canvas needles and nylon thread, spare netting and garnish, 
rations, and personal items as needed. The sniper also carries his ghillie 
suit (Chapter 4, paragraph 4-4) in his rucksack until the mission requires 
its use. 

f. Measuring Tape. A standard 10-foot to 25-foot metal carpenter's 
tape allows the sniper to measure items in his operational area. 
This information is recorded in the sniper data book. (See Chapter 4 for 
range estimation.) 

Section V 
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT 

The sniper team must have a man-portable radio that gives the team 
secure communications with the units involved in their mission. 

2-18. AN/PRC-77 RADIO 

The basic radio for the sniper team is the AN/PRC-77 (Figure 2-34). 
This radio is a short-range, man-pack portable, frequency modulated 
receiver-transmitter that provides two-way voice communication. 
The set can net with all other infantry and artillery FM radio sets on 
common frequencies. The AN/KY-57 should be installed with 
the AN/PRC-77. This allows the sniper team to communicate securely 
with all units supporting or being supported by the sniper team. 




Figure 2-34. AN/PRC-77 radio. 

2-41 



FM 23-10 



2-19. AN/PRC-104A RADIO TRANSCEIVER 

The AN/PRC-104A is a state-of-the-am lightweight radio transceiver that 
operates in the high frequency and in the upper part of the low frequency 
portions of the radio spectrum (Figure 2-35). The receiver /transmitter 
circuits can be tuned to any frequency between 2.0000 and 29.9999 MHz 
in 100 Hz increments, making it possible to tune up to 280,000 separate 
frequencies. The radio operates in the upper or lower side bank modes 
for voice communications, CW for Morse code, or FSK (frequency-shift 
keying) for transmission of teletype or other data. 

a.Tn the man-pack configuration, the radio set is carried and operated by 
one man or, with the proper accessories, it can be configured for vehicle or 
fixed-station use. The radio set with antenna and handset weighs 15.7 pounds. 

b. The control panel, human-engineered for ease of operation, 
makes it possible to adjust all controls even while wearing heavy gloves. 
Unlike older, similar radio sets, there are no front panel meters or 
indicator lights on the AN/PRC-104A. All functions that formerly 
required these types of indicators are monitored by the radio and 
communicated to the operator as special tones in the handset. 
This feature is highly useful during tactical blackout operations. 
The superior design and innovative features of the AN/PRC-104A radio set 
make it possible to maintain a reliable long-range communications link. 
The radio uses lightweight, portable equipment that can be operated by 
personnel who have minimum training. 



AMPLIFIER/COUPLER 



RECEIVER/EXCITER 



WHIP ANTENNA 



LATCH 




"SHOCK MOUNT 



ANTENNA 
SOCKET 



BATTERY PACK 



Figure 2-35. AN/PRC-104A radio transceiver. 



2-42 



FM 23-10 



2-20. AN/PRC-119 RADIO 

The AN/PRC-119 (Figure 2-36) replaces the AN/PRC-77, although the 
AN/PRC-77 is still in use. The AN/PRC-119 is a man-pack portable, 
VHF/FM radio that is designed for simple, quick operation using a 
16-element keypad for push-button tuning. It can also be used for 
short-range and long-range operation for voice, FSK, or digital 
data communications. It can also be used for single-channel operation or 
in a jam-resistant, frequency-hopping mode, which can be changed as needed 
This radio has a built-in self-test with visual and audio readbacks. It is 
compatible with the AN/KY-57 for secure communications. 



MANPACK ANTENNA 
RECEIVER TRANSMITTER 




HANDSET 



Figure 2-36. AN/PRC-119 radio. 



2-43 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 3 
MARKSMANSHIP 

Sniper marksmanship is an extension of basic rifle marksmanship 
ana focuses on the techniques needed to engage targets at 
extended ranges. To successfully engage targets at increased 
distances, the sniper team must be proficient in marksmanship 
fundamentals ana advanced marksmanship skills. Examples of 
these skills are determining the effects of weather conditions on 
ballistics, holding off for elevation and windage, engaging moving 
targets, using ana adjusting scopes, and zeroing procedures. 
Markmanship skills should be practiced often. 

Section I 
FUNDAMENTALS 

The sniper team must be thoroughly trained in the fundamentals 
of marksmanship. These include assuming a position, aiming, breath 
control, and trigger control. These fundamentals develop fixed and 
correct firing habits for instinctive application. Every sniper should 
periodically refamiliarize himself with these fundamentals regardless of 
lis experience. 

3-1. STEADY POSITION ELEMENTS 

The sniper should assume a good firing position (Figure 3-1, page 3-2) in 
order to engage targets with any consistency. A good position enables the 
sniper to relax and concentrate when preparing to fire. 

a. Position Elements. Establishing a mental checklist of steady 
position elements enhances the sniper's ability to achieve a first-round hit. 

(1) Nonfiring hand. Use the nonfiring hand to support the butt of 
the weapon. Place the hand next to the cheat and rest the tip of the butt 
on it. Bail the hand into a fist to raise the weapon's butt or loosen the fist 



3-1 



FM 23-10 



to lower the weapon's butt. An effective method is to hold a sock full of 
sand in the nonriring hand and to place the weapon butt on the sock. 
This reduces body contact with the weapon. To raise the butt, squeeze the 
sock and to lower it, loosen the grip on the sock. 

(2) Butt of the stock. Place the butt of the stock firmly in the pocket 
of the shoulder. Insert a pad on the ghillie suit (see Chapter 4) where 
contact with the butt is made to reduce the effects of pulse beat and 
breathing, which can be transmitted to the weapon. 

(3) Firing hand. With the firing hand, grip the small of the stock. 
Using the middle through little fingers, exert a slight rearward pull to keep 
the butt of the weapon firmly in the pocket of the shoulder. Place the 
thumb over the top of the small of the stock. Place the index finger on 
the trigger, ensuring it does not touch the stock of the weapon. 
This avoids disturbing the lay of the rifle when the trigger is squeezed. 

(4) Elbows. Find a comfortable position that provides the greatest 
support. 

(5) Stock weld. Place the cheek in the same place on the stock with 
each shot. A change in stock weld tends to cause poor sight alignment, 
reducing accuracy. 

(6) Bone support. Bone support is the foundation of the firing 
position; they provide steady support of the weapon. 




SUPPORT 



Figure 3-1. Firing position. 



3-2 



FM 23-10 



(7) Muscle relaxation. When using bone support, the sniper can relax 
muscles, reducing any movement that could be caused by tense or 
trembling muscles. Aside from tension in the trigger finger and firing 
hand, any use of the muscle generates movement or the sniper's 

cross hairs. 

(8) Natural point of aim. The point at which the rifle naturally rest 
in relation to the aiming point is called natural point of aim. 

(a) Once the sniper is in position and aimed in on his target, the 
method for checking for natural point of aim is for the sniper to close 
his eyes, take a couple of breaths, and relax as much as possible. 
Upon opening his eyes, the scope's cross hairs should be positioned at 
the sniper's preferred aiming point. Since the rifle becomes an 
extension of the sniper's body, it is necessary to adjust the position of 
the body until the rifle points naturally at the preferred aiming point 
on the target. 

(b) Once the natural point of aim has been determined, the sniper 
must maintain his position to the target. To maintain his natural point of 
aim in all shooting positions, the natural point of aim can be readjusted 
and checked periodically. 

(c) The sniper can change the elevation of the natural point of aim 
by leaving his elbows in place and by sliding his body forward or rearward. 
This raises or lowers the muzzle of the weapon, respectively. To maintain 
the natural point of aim after the weapon has been fired, proper bolt 
operation becomes critical. The sniper must practice reloading while in 
the prone position without removing the butt of the weapon from the 
firing shoulder. This may be difficult for the left-hand firer. The two 
techniques for accomplishing this task are as follows: 

• After firing, move the bolt slowly to the rear while canting the 
weapon to the right. Execution of this task causes the spent 
cartridge to fall next to the weapon. 

• After firing, move the bolt to the rear with the thumb of the 
firing hand. Using the index and middle fingers, reach into the 
receiver and catch the spent cartridge as it is heing ejected. This 
technique does not require canting the weapon. 

NOTE: The sniper conducts bolt operation under a veil or 
equivalent camouflage to improve concealment. 

b. Steady Firing Position. On the battlefield, the sniper must assume 
a steady firing position with maximum use of cover and concealment. 
Considering the variables of terrain, vegetation, and tactical situations, 



3-3 



FM 23-10 



the sniper can use many variations of the basic positions. When assuming 
a firing position, he must adhere to the following basic rules: 

(1) Use any support available. 

(2) Avoid touching the support with the barrel of the weapon since 
it interferes with barrel harmonics and reduces accuracy. 

(3) Use a cushion between the weapon and the support to prevent 
slippage of the weapon. 

(4) Use the prone supported position whenever possible. 

c. Types of Firing Positions. Due to the importance of delivering 
precision fire, the sniper makes maximum use of artificial support and 
eliminates any variable that may prevent adhering to the basic rules. 
He uses the prone supported; prone unsupported; kneeling unsupported; 
kneeling, sling supported; standing supported; and the Hawkins 
firing positions. 

(1) Prone supported position. The prone supported position is the 
steadiest position; it should be used whenever possible (Figure 3-2). 
To assume the prone supported position, the sniper should— 

(a) Lie down and place the weapon on a support that allows pointing 
in the direction of the target. Keep the position as low as possible. 
(For field-expedient weapon supports, see paragraph 3-ld.) 

(b) Remove the nonfiring hand from underneath the fore-end of the 
weapon by folding the arm underneath the receiver and trigger, grasping 
the rear sling swivel. This removes any chance of subconsciously trying 
to exert control over the weapon's natural point of aim. Keep the elbows 
in a comfortable position that provides the greatest support. 



BODY IN LINE WITH 

WEAPON AS MUCH AS 

POSSIBLE 



HEELS FLAT ON GROUND 




ELBOWS IN 

COMFORTABLE 

POSITION 



NONFIRING HAND 
GRASPING REAR SWIVEL 



Figure 3-2. Prone supported position. 



3-4 



FM 23-10 



(c) Keep the body in line with the weapon as much as possible-not at 
an angle. This presents less of a target to the enemy and more body mass 
to absorb recoil. 

(&) Spread legs a comfortable distance apart with the heels on the 
ground or as close as possible without causing strain. 

(2) Prone unsupported position. The prone unsupported position 
(Figure 3-3) offers another stable firing platform for engaging targets. 
To assume this position, the sniper faces his target, spreads his feet a 
comfortable distance apart, and drops to his knees. Using the butt of the 
rifle as a pivot, the firer rolls onto his nonfiring side. He places the rifle 
butt in the pocket formed by the firing shoulder, grasps the pistol grip in 
his firing hand, and lowers the firing elbow to the ground. The rifle rests 
in the V formed by the thumb and fingers of the nonfiring hand The sniper 
adjusts the position of his firing elbow until his shoulders are about level, 
and pulls back firmly on the rifle with both hands. To complete the 
position, he obtains a stock weld and relaxes, keeping his heels close to 
the ground. 



SHOULDERS ARE ABOUT LEVEL 



BODY IN LINE WrTH 

WEAPON AS MUCH AS 

POSSIBLE 



HEELS CLOSE TO 
GROUND 



STOCK WELD 




RIFLE REST IN V FORMED BY THUMB 



Figure 3-3. Prone unsupported position. 

(3) Kneeling unsupported position. The kneeling unsupported 
position (Figure 3-4, page 3-6) is assumed quickly. It places the sniper 
high enough to see over small brush and provides for a stable position. 

(a) Place the body at a 45-degree angle to the target. 

(b) Kneel and place the right knee on the ground. 



3-5 



FM 23-10 



(c) Keep the left leg as perpendicular to the ground as possible; sit back 
on the right heel, placing it as directly under the spinal column as possible. 
A variation is to turn the toe inward and sit squarely on the right foot. 

(d) Grasp the small of the stock of the weapon with the firing hand, 
and cradle the fore-end of the weapon in a crook formed with the left arm. 

(e) Place the butt of the weapon in the pocket of the shoulder, then 
place the meaty underside of the left elbow on top of the left knee. 

(f) Reach under the weapon with the left hand, and lightly grasp the 
firing arm. 

(g) Relax forward and into the support position, using the left 
shoulder as a contact point. This reduces transmission of the pulsebeat 
into the sight picture. 

(h) Lean against a tree, building, or vehicle for body support. 




Figure 3-4. Kneeling unsupported position. 

(4) Kneeling, sling supported position. If vegetation presents a 
problem, the sniper can raise his kneeling position by using the rifle sling. 
To assume the kneeling, sling supported position, he executes the first 
three steps for assuming a kneeling unsupported position. With the 
leather sling mounted to the weapon, the sniper turns the sling 
one-quarter turn to the left. The lower part of the sling will then form a loop. 



3-6 



FM 23-10 



(a) Place the left arm (nonfiring) through the loop; pull the sling up 
the arm and place it on the upper arm between the elbow and shoulder, 
but not directly over the biceps. 

(b) Tighten the sling by sliding the sling keeper against the loop 
holding the arm. 

(c) Rotate the left arm in a clockwise motion around the sling and 
under the rifle with the sling secured to the upper arm. Place the fore-end 
of the stock in the V formed by the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. 
Relax the left arm and hand, let the sling support the weight of the weapon. 

(d) Place the butt of the rifle against the right shoulder and place the 
left elbow on top of the left knee (Figure 3-5). Pull the left hand back 
along the fore-end of the rifle toward the trigger guard to add to stability. 




Figure 3-5. Kneeling, sling supported position. 

(5) Standing supported position. The standing supported position is 
the least steady of the supported positions and should oe used only as a 
last resort (Figure 3-6, page 3-8). 

(a) To assume the standing supported position with horizontal 
support, such as a wall or ledge, the sniper proceeds as follows: 

• Locate a solid object for support. Avoid branches as they tend 
to sway when wind is present. 



3-7 



FM 23-10 



Form a V with the thumb and forefinger of the nonfiring hand. 

Place the nonfiring hand against the support with the fore-end of 
the weapon resting in the V of the hand. This steadies the 
weapon and allows quick recovery from recoil. 

Then place the butt of the weapon in the pocket of the shoulder. 




Figure 3-6. Standing supported position 
(horizontal support). 



3-8 



FM 23-10 



(b) To use vertical support (Figure 3-7), such as a tree, telephone 
pole, comer of building, or vehicle, the sniper proceeds as follows: 

• Locate stable support. Face the target, then turn 45 degrees to 
the right of the target, and place the palm of the nonfiring hand 
at arm's length against the support. 

• Lock the left arm straight, let the left leg buckle, and place body 
weight against the nonfiring hand. Keep the trail leg straight. 

• Place the fore-end of the weapon in the V formed by extending 
the thumb of the nonfiring hand. 

• Exert more pressure to the rear with the firing hand. 




Figure 3-7. Standing supported position 
(vertical support). 



3-9 



FM 23-10 



(6) Hawkins position. The Hawkins position (Figure 3-8) is a 
variation of the prone unsupported position. The sniper uses it when 
firing from a low bank or a depression in the ground, over a roof, or so 
forth. It cannot be used on level ground since the muzzle cannot be raised 
high enough to aim at the target. It is a low-profile position with excellent 
stability and aids concealment. To assume this position, the sniper uses 
the weapon's sling and proceeds as follows: 



CAUTION 

LOCK THE NONFIRING ARM STRAIGHT OR THE FACE WILL 
ABSORB THE WEAPON'S RECOIL. 



(a) After assuming a prone position, grasp the upper sling swivel and 
sling with the nonfiring hand, forming a fist to support the front of 
the weapon. 

(b) Ensure the nonfiring arm is locked straight since it will absorb 
the weapon's recoil. Wearing a glove is advisable. 

(c) Rest the butt of the weapon on the ground and place it under the 
firing shoulder. 

The sniper can make minor adjustments in muzzle elevation by tightening 
or relaxing the fist of the nonfiring hand. If more elevation is required, 
he can place a support under the nonfiring fist. 




Figure 3-8. Hawkins position. 



3-10 



FM 23-10 



d. Field-Expedient Weapon Support. Support of the weapon is 
critical to the sniper's success in engaging targets. Unlike a well-equipped 
firing range with sandbags for weapon support, the sniper can encounter 
situations where weapon support relies on common sense and imagination. 
The sniper should practice using these supports at every opportunity and 
select the one that oest suits his needs. He must train as if in combat to 
avoid confusion and self-doubt. The following items are commonly used 
as field-expedient weapon supports 

(1) Sand sock. The sniper needs the sand sock when delivering 
precision fire at long ranges. He uses a standard issue, olive-drab 
wool sock filled one-half to 

three-quarters full of sand and 

knotted off. He places it under 

the rear sling swivel when in the 

prone supported position for 

added stability (Figure 3-9). 

By limiting minor movement 

and reducing pulse beat, the 

sniper can concentrate on trigger 

control and aiming. He uses the 

nonfiring hand to grip the sand sock, rather than the rear sling swivel. 

The sniper makes minor changes in muzzle elevation by squeezing or 

relaxing his grip on the sock. He uses the sand sock as padding between 

the weapon and a rigid support also. 

(2) Rucksack. If the sniper is in terrain without any natural support, 
he may use his rucksack (Figure 3-10). He must consider the height and 
presence of rigid objects within the rucksack. The rucksack must conform 
to weapon contours to add stability. 




Figure 3-9. Sand sock. 




Figure 3-1 0. Rucksack. 



3-11 



FM 23-10 



(3) Sandbag. The sniper can fill an empty sandbag (Figure 3-11) on site. 







Figure 3-11. Sandbag. 

(4) Tripod. The sniper can build a field-expedient tripod (Figure 3-12) by 
tying together three 12-inch long sticks (one thicker than the others) with 550 
cord or the equivalent. When tying the sticks, he wraps the cord at the center 
point and leaves enough slack to fold the legs out into a triangular base. 
Then, he places the fore-end of the weapon between the three uprights. 

(5) Bipod. The sniper can build a field-expedient bipod (Figure 3-12) 
by tying together two 12-inch sticks, thick enough to support the weight 
of the weapon. Using 550 cord or the equivalent, he ties the sticks at the 
center point, leaving enough slack to fold them out in a scissor-like manner. 
He then places the weapon between the two uprights. The bipod is not 
as stable as other field-expedient items, and it should be used only in the 
absence of other techniques. 

(6) Forked stake. The tactical situation determines the use of the 
forked stake. Unless the sniper can drive a forked stake into the ground, 
this is the least desirable of the techniques; that is, he must use his 
nonfiring hand to hold the stake in an upright position (Figure 3-12). 
Delivering long-range precision fire is a near-impossibility due to the 
unsteadiness of the position. 



3-12 



FM 23-10 




Figure 3-12. Field-expedient tripod, bipod, 
and forked stake. 



3-13 



FM 23-10 



e. Sniper and Observer Positioning. The sniper should find a place 
on the ground that allows him to build a steady, comfortable position 
with the best cover, concealment, and visibility of the target area. 
Once established, the observer should position himself out of the sniper's 
field of view on his firing side. 

(1) The closer the observer gets his spotting telescope to the sniper's 
line of bore, the easier it is to follow the trace (path) of the bullet and 
observe the point of impact. A position at 4 to 5 o'clock (7 to 8 o'clock 
for left-handed firers) from the firing shoulder and close to (but not 
touching) the sniper is best (Figure 3-13). 

NOTE: Trace is the visible trail of a bullet and is created by the 
shock wave of a supersonic bullet. The shockwave compresses 
the air along the leading edge of a bullet causing water vapor in 
the air to momentary condense and become visible. To the 
observer, located to the rear of the sniper, trace appears as a rapidly 
moving V-shaped vortex in the air following the trajectory of 
the bullet. Through close observation and practice, trace can be 
used to judge the bullet's trajectory relative to the aiming point, 
making corrections easier for a follow-up shot. Trace can best 
be seen if the observer's optics are directly in line with the axis 
of the sniper's rifle barrel. Watching the trace and the effects of 
the bullet s impact are the primary means by which the observer 
assists the sniper in calling the shot. 




Figure 3-13. Sniper team positioning. 



3-14 



FM 23-10 



(2) If the sniper is without weapon support in his position, he uses 
the observer's body as a support (Figure 3-14). This support is not 
recommended since the sniper must contend with his own movement and 
the observer's body movement. The sniper should practice and prepare 
to use an observer supported position. A variety of positions can be used; 
however, the two most stable are when the observer is in a prone or 
sitting position. 

(a) Prone. To assume the prone position, the observer lies at a 
45-to 75-degree angle to the target and observes the area through his 
spotting telescope. The sniper assumes a a prone supported position, using 
the back of the observer's thigh for support. Due to the offset angle, the 
observer may only see the bullet impact. 







St-ia 












i|L«fM 










d^m^yjB] 


^^%iw*^^l 




Eg§ 


•^•^ 


Bm' 



Figure 3-14. Prone observer supported position. 

(b) Sitting. If vegetation prevents the sniper from assuming a prone 
position, the sniper has the observer face the target area and assume a 
cross-legged sitting position. The observer places his elbows on his knees 
to stabilize his position. For observation, the observer uses binoculars 
held in his hands. The spotting telescope is not recommended due to its 
higher magnification and the unsteadiness of this position. The sniper is 
behind the observer in an open-legged, cross-legged, or kneeling position, 
depending on the target's elevation (Figure 3-15, page 3-16). The sniper 
places the fore-end of the weapon across the observer's left shoulder, 
stabilizing the weapon with the forefinger of the nonfiring hand. 
When using these positions, the sniper's effective engagement of targets at 
extended ranges is difficult and used only as a last resort. When practicing 
these positions, the sniper and observer must enter respiratory pause 
together to eliminate movement from breathing. 



3-15 



FM 23-10 



WEAPON PLACEMENT IS ON THE 
OBSERVER'S LEFT SHOULDER . . 
OPEN-LEGGED, CROSS-LEGGED, 
OR KNEELING POSFTION 




NONFIRING HAND 



Figure 3-15. Sitting position. 



3-2. AIMING 

The sniper begins the aiming process by aligning the rifle with the target 
when assuming a firing position. He should point the rifle naturally at 
the desired point of aim. If his muscles are used to adjust the weapon onto 
the point of aim, they automatically relax as the rifle fires, and the rifle 
begms to move toward its natural point of aim. Because this movement 
begins just before the weapon discharge, the rifle is moving as the bullet 
leaves the muzzle. This causes inaccurate shots with no apparent cause 
(recoil disguises the movement). By adjusting the weapon and body as a 
single unit, rechecking, and readjusting as needed, the sniper achieves a 
true natural point of aim. Once the position is established, the sniper 
then aims the weapon at the exact point on the target. Aiming involves: 
eye relief, sight alignment, and sight picture. 



3-16 



FM 23-10 



a. Eye Relief. This is the distance from the sniper's firing eye to the 
rear sight or the rear of the scope tube. When using iron sights, the sniper 
ensures the distance remains consistent from shot to shot to preclude 
changing what he views through the rear sight. However, relief will vary 
from firing position to firing position and from sniper to sniper, according 
to the sniper's neck length, his angle of head approach to the stock, the 
depth of nis shoulder pocket, and his firing position. This distance 
(Figure 3-16) is more rigidly controlled with telescopic sights than with 
iron sights. The sniper must take care to prevent eye injury caused by the 
scope tube striking his brow during recoil. Regardless of the sighting 
system he uses, he must place his head as upright as possible with his firing 
eye located directly behind the rear portion of the sighting system. 
This head placement also allows the muscles surrounding his eye to relax. 
Incorrect head placement causes the sniper to look out of the top or 
corner of his eye, resulting in muscular strain. Such strain leads to blurred 
vision and can also cause eye strain. The sniper can avoid eye strain by 
not staring through the telescopic or iron sights for extended periods. 
The best aid to consistent eye relief is maintaining the same stock weld 
from shot to shot. 




Figure 3-16. Eye relief. 



3-17 



FM 23-10 



b. Sight Alignment. With telescopic sights, sight alignment is the 
relationship between the cross hairs (reticle) and a full field of view as 
seen by the sniper. The sniper must place his head so that a full field 
of view fills the tube, with no dark shadows or crescents to cause 
inaccurate shots. He centers the reticle in a full field of view, ensuring the 
vertical cross hair is straight up and down so the rifle is not canted. 
Again, the center is easiest for the sniper to locate and allows for 
consistent reticle placement. With iron sights, sight alignment is the 
relationship between the front and rear sights as seen oy the sniper 
(Figure 3-17). The sniper centers the top edge of the front sight blade 
horizontally and vertically within the rear aperture. (The center of 
aperture is easiest for the eye to locate and allows the sniper to be 
consistent in blade location.) 



SCOPE 



0GXD 




FULL FIELD 
OF VIEW 



METALLIC SIGHT 



Q0/© 

' -^STRIKE OF BULLE T , 

f A/ f\, J FULLFIi 



Figure 3-17. Sight alignment. 



3-18 



FM 23-10 



e. Sight Picture. With telescopic sights, the sight picture is the 
relationship between the reticle and full field of view and the target as seen 
by the sniper. The sniper centers the reticle in a full field of view. He then 
places the reticle center of the largest visible mass of the target (as in iron 
sights). The center of mass of the target is easiest for the sniper to locate, 
and it surrounds the intended point of impact with a maximum amount of 
target area. With iron sights, sight picture is the relationship between the 
rear aperture, the front sight blade, and the target as seen by the sniper 
(Figure 3-18). The sniper centers the top edge of the blade in the rear 
aperture. He then places the top edge of the blade in the center of the largest 
visible mass of the target (disregard the head and use the center of the torso). 



COPE 

1 A i I A 



A A A A A 



Figure 3-18. Sight picture. 

d. Sight Alignment Error. When sight alignment and picture are 
perfect (regardless of sighting system) and all else is done correctly, the 
shot will hit center of mass on the target. However, with an error insight 
alignment, the bullet is displaced in the direction of the error. Such an 
error creates an angular displacement between the line of sight and the 

3-19 



FM 23-10 



line of bore. This displacement increases as range increases; the amount 
of bullet displacement depends on the size of alignment error. 
Close targets show little or no visible error. Distant targets can show 
great displacement or can be missed altogether due to severe sight 
misalignment. An inexperienced sniper is prone to this kind of error, 
since he is unsure of what correctly aligned sights look like (especially 
telescopic sights); a sniper varies his head position (and eye relief) from 
shot to shot, and he is apt to make mistakes while firing. 

e. Sight Picture Error. An error in sight picture is an error in the 
placement of the aiming point. This causes no displacement between the 
line of sight and the line of bore. The weapon is simply pointed at the 
wrong spot on the target. Because no displacement exists as range 
increases, close and far targets are hit or missed depending on where the 
front sight or the reticle is when the rifle fires. All snipers face this kind 
of error every time they shoot. This is because, regardless of firing 
position stability, the weapon will always be moving. A supported rifle 
moves much leas than an unsupported one, but both still move in what is 
known as a wobble area. The sniper must adjust his firing position so that 
his wobble area is as small as possible and centered on the target. 
With proper adjustments, the sniper should be able to fire the shot while 
the front sight blade or reticle is on the target at, or very near, the desired 
aiming point. How far the blade or reticle is from this point when the 
weapon fires is the amount of sight picture error all snipers face. 

f. Dominant Eye. To determine which eye is dominant, the sniper 
extends one arm to the front and points the index finger skyward to select an 
aiming point. With both eyes open, he aligns the index finger with the aiming 
point, then closes one eye at a time while looking at the aiming point. One 
eye will make the finger appear to move off the aiming point; the other eye 
will stay on the aiming point. The dominant eye is the eye that does not move 
the finger from the aiming point. Some individuals may have difficulty aiming 
because of interference from their dominant eye, if this is not the eye used in 
the aiming process. This may require the sniper to fire from the other side 
of the weapon (right-handed firer will fire left-handed). Such individuals 
must close the dominant eye while shooting. 

3-3. BREATH CONTROL 

Breath control is important with respect to the aiming process. If the 
sniper breathes while trying to aim, the rise and fall of his chest causes 
the rifle to move. He must, therefore, accomplish sight alignment 
during breathing. To do this, he first inhales then exhales normally and 
stops at the moment of natural respiratory pause. 



3-20 



FM 23-10 



a. A respiratory cycle lasts 4 to 5 seconds. Inhalation and exhalation 
require only about 2 seconds. Thus, between each respiratory cycle there 
is a pause of 2 to 3 seconds. This pause can be extended to 10 seconds 
without any special effort or unpleasant sensations. The sniper should 
shoot during this pause when his breathing muscles relax. This avoids 
strain on his diaphragm. 

b. A sniper should assume his firing position and breathe naturally 
until his hold begins to settle. Many snipers then take a slightly deeper 
breath, exhale, and pause, expecting to fire the shot during the pause. If the 
hold does not settle enough to allow the shot to be fired, the sniper 
resumes normal breathing and repeats the process. 

c. The respiratory pause should never feel unnatural. If it is too long, 
the body suffers from oxygen deficiency and sends out signals to resume 
breathing. These signals produce involuntary movements in the diaphragm 
and interfere with the sniper's ability to concentrate. About 8 to 10 seconds 
is the maximum safe period for the respiratory pause. During multiple, rapid 
engagements, the breathing cycle should be forced through a rapid, shallow 
cycle between shots instead of trying to hold the breath or breathing. 
Firing should be accomplished at the forced respiratory pause. 

3-4. TRIGGER CONTROL 

Trigger control is the most important of the sniper marksmanship 
fundamentals. It is defined as causing the rifle to fire when the sight 
picture is at its best, without causing the rifle to move. Trigger squeeze is 
uniformly increasing pressure straight to the rear until the rifle fires. 

a. Proper trigger control occurs when the sniper places his firing 
finger as low on the trigger as possible and still clears the trigger guard, 
thereby achieving maximum mechanical advantage and movement of the 
finger to the entire rifle. 

b. The sniper maintains trigger control beat by assuming a stable 
position, adjusting on the target, and beginning a breathing cycle. As the 
sniper exhales the final breath toward a natural respiratory pause, he 
secures his finger on the trigger. As the front blade or reticle settles at 
the desired point of aim, and the natural respiratory pause is entered, the 
sniper applies initial pressure. He increases the tension on the trigger 
during the respiratory pause as long as the front blade or reticle remains 
in the area of the target that ensures a well-placed shot. If the front blade 
or reticle moves away from the desired point of aim on the target, and the 
pause is free of strain or tension, the sniper stops increasing the tension 
on the trigger, waits for the front blade or reticle to return to the desired 
point, and then continues to squeeze the trigger. If movement is too large 



3-21 



FM 23-10 

for recovery or if the pause has become uncomfortable (extended too 
long), the sniper should carefully release the pressure on the trigger and 
begin the respiratory cycle again. 

c. As the stability of a firing position decreases, the wobble area 
increases. The larger the wobble area, the harder it is to fire the shot 
without reacting to it. This reaction occurs when the sniper— 

(1) Anticipates recoil. The firing shoulder begins to move forward 
just before the round fires. 

(2) Jerks the trigger. The trigger finger moves the trigger in a quick, 
choppy, spasmodic attempt to fire the shot before the front blade or reticle 
can move away from the desired point of aim. 

(3) Flinches. The sniper's entire upper body (or parts thereof) 
overreacts to anticipated noise or recoil. This is usually due to unfamil- 
iarity with the weapon. 

(4) Avoids recoil. The sniper tries to avoid recoil or noise by moving 
away from the weapon or by closing the firing eye just before the 
round fires. This, again, is caused by a lack of knowledge of the weapon's 
actions upon firing. 

3-5. FOLLOW-THROUGH 

Applying the fundamentals increases the odds of a well-aimed shot 
being fired. When mastered, additional skills can make that first-round 
kill even more of a certainty. One of these skills is the follow-through. 

a. Follow-through is the act of continuing to apply all the sniper 
marksmanship fundamentals as the weapon fires as well as immediately 
after it fires. It consists of— 

(1) Keeping the head infirm contact with the stock (stock weld). 

(2) Keeping the finger on the trigger all the way to the rear. 

(3) Continuing to look through the rear aperture or scope tube. 

(4) Keeping muscles relaxed. 

(5) Avoiding reaction to recoil and or noise. 

(6) Releasing the trigger only after the recoil has stopped. 

b. A good follow-through ensures the weapon is allowed to fire and recoil 
naturally. The sniper/rifle combination reacts as a single unit to such actions. 

3-6. CALLING THE SHOT 

Calling the shot is being able to tell where the round should impact on 
the target. Because live targets invariably move when hit, the sniper will 
find it almost impossible to use his scope to locate the target after the 
round is fired. Using iron sights, the sniper will find that searching for a 
downrange hit is beyond his abilities. He must be able to accurately call 



3-22 



FM 23-10 



his shots. Proper follow-through will aid in calling the shot. The dominant 
factor in shot calling is knowing where the reticle or blade is located when 
the weapon discharges. This location is called the final focus point. 

a. With iron sights, the final focus point should be on the top edge of 
the front sight blade. The blade is the only part of the sight picture that 
is moving (in the wobble area). Focusing on it aids in calling the shot and 
detecting any errors insight alignment or sight picture. Of course, lining 
up the sights and the target initially requires the sniper to shift his focus 
from the target to the blade and back until he is satisfied that he is properly 
aligned with the target. This shifting exposes two more facts about 
eye focus. The eye can instantly shift focus from near objects (the blade) 
to far objects (the target). 

b. The final focus is easily placed with telescopic sights because of 
the sight's optical qualities. Properly focused, a scope should present 
both the field of view and the reticle in sharp detail. Final focus should 
then be on the target. While focusing on the target, the sniper moves his 
head slightly from side to side. The reticle may seem to move across the 
target face, even though the rifle and scope are motionless. This movement 
is parallax. Parallax is present when the target image is not correctly 
focused on the reticle's focal plane. Therefore, the target image and the 
reticle appear to be in two separate positions inside the scope, causing the 
effect of reticle movement across the target. The M3A scope on the M24 
has a focus adjustment that eliminates parallax in the scope. The sniper 
should adjust the focus knob until the target's image is on the same focal 
plane as trie reticle. To determine if the target's image appears at the ideal 
location, the sniper should move his head slightly left and right to see if 
the reticle appears to move. If it does not move, the focus is properly 
adjusted and no parallax will be present. 

3-7. INTEGRATED ACT OF FIRING 

Once the sniper has been taught the fundamentals of marksmanship, his 
primary concern is his ability to apply it in the performance of his mission. 
An effective method of applying fundamentals is through the use of the 
integrated act of firing one round. The integrated act is a logical, 
step-by-step development of fundamentals whereby the sniper can 
develop habits that enable him to fire each shot the same way. The integrated 
act of firing can be divided into four distinct phases: 

a. Preparation Phase. Before departing the preparation area, the 
sniper ensures that— 

(1) The team is mentally conditioned and knows what mission they 
are to accomplish. 



3-23 



FM 23-10 

(2) A systematic check is made of equipment for completeness and 
serviceability including, but not limited to— 

(a) Properly cleaned and lubricated rifles. 

(b) Properly mounted and torqued scopes. 

(c) Zero-sighted systems and recorded data in the sniper data book. 

(d) Study of the weather conditions to determine their possible 
effects on the team's performance of the mission. 

b. Before-Firing Phase. On arrival at the mission site, the team 
exercises care in selecting positions. The sniper ensures the selected 
positions support the mission. During this phase, the sniper— 

(1) Maintains strict adherence to the fundamentals of position. 
He ensures that the firing position is as relaxed as possible, making the 
most of available external support. He also makes sure the support is 
stable, conforms to the position, and allows a correct, natural point of aim 
for each designated area or target. 

(2) Once in position, removes the scope covers and checks the 
field(s) of fire, making any needed corrections to ensure clear, 
unobstructed firing lanes. 

(3) Makes dry firing and natural point of aim checks. 

(4) Double-checks ammunition for serviceability and completes 
final magazine loading. 

(5) Notifies the observer he is ready to engage targets. The observer 
must be constantly aware of weather conditions that may affect the 
accuracy of the shots. He must also stay ahead of the tactical situation. 

c. Firing Phase. Upon detection, or if directed to a suitable target, 
the sniper makes appropriate sight changes, aims, and tells the observer 
he is ready to fire. The observer then gives the needed windage and 
observes the target. To fire the rifle, the sniper should remember the key 
word, "BRASS.' Each letter is explained as follows: 

(1) Breathe. The sniper inhales and exhales to the natural respira- 
tory pause. He checks for consistent head placement and stock weld. 
He ensures eye relief is correct (full field of view through the scope; no 
shadows present). At the same time, he begins aligning the cross hairs or 
front blade with the target at the desired point of aim. 

(2) Relax. As the sniper exhales, he relaxes as many muscles as 
possible, while maintaining control of the weapon and position. 

(3) Aim. If the sniper has a good, natural point of aim, the rifle points 
at the desired target during the respiratory pause. If the aim is off, the 
sniper should make a slight adjustment to acquire the desired point 
of aim. He avoids "muscling" the weapon toward the aiming point. 



3-24 



FM 23-10 



(4) Squeeze. As long as the sight picture is satisfactory, the sniper 
squeezes the trigger. The pressure applied to the trigger must he straight to 
the rear without disturbing the lay of the rifle or the desired point of aim. 

d. After-Firing Phase. The sniper must analyze his performance 
If the shot impacted at the desired spot (a target hit), it may be assumed the 
integrated act of firing one round was correctly followed. If however, the 
shot was off call, the sniper and observer must check for Possible errors. 

(1) Failure to follow the keyword, BRASS (partial field of view, breath 
held incorrectly, trigger jerked, rifle muscled into position, and so on). 

(2) Target improperly ranged with scope (causing high or low shots). 

(3) Incorrectly compensated for wind (causing right or left shots). 

(4) Possible weapon /ammunition malfunction (used only as a last 
resort when no other errors are detected). 

Once the probable reasons for an off-call shot is determined the sniper must 
make note of the errors. He pays close attention to the problem areas to 
increase the accuracy of future shots. 

Section II 
BALLISTICS 

As applied to sniper marksmanship, types of ballistics may be defined as 
the study of the firing, flight, and effect of ammunition. Proper execution 
of marksmanship fundamentals and a thorough knowledge of ballistics 
ensure the successful completion of the mission. Tables and formulas in 
this section should be used only as guidelines since every rifle performs 
differently. Maximum ballistics data eventually result in a well-kept 
sniper data book and knowledge gained through experience. 

3-8. TYPES OF BALLISTICS 

Ballistics are divided into three distinct types: internal external, and terminal. 

a. Internal-the interior workings of a weapon and the functioning 
of its ammunition. 

b. External-the flight of the bullet from the muzzle to the target. 

c. Termninal-what happens to the bullet after it hits the target. 
(See paragraph 3-16.) 

3-9. TERMINOLOGY 

To fully understand ballistics, the sniper should be familiar with the 
following terms: 

a. Muzzle Velocity-the speed of the bullet as it leaves the rifle 
barrel, measured in feet per second. It varies according to various factors, 
such as ammunition type and lot number, temperature, and humidity. 



3-25 



FM 23-10 

b. Line of Sight- straight line from the eye through the aiming 
device to the point of aim. 

c. Line of Departure-the line defined by the bore of the rifle or the 
path the bullet would take without gravity. 

d. Trajectory-the path of the bullet as it travels to the target. 

e. Midrange Trajectory/Maximum Ordinate-the highest point the 
bullet reaches on its way to the target. This point must be known to 
engage a target that requires firing underneath an overhead obstacle, such 
as a bridge or a tree. In attention to midrange trajectory may cause the 
sniper to hit the obstacle instead of the target. 

f . Bullet Drop— how far the bullet drops from the line of departure 
to the point of impact. 

g. Time of Flight-the amount of time it takes for the bullet to reach 
the target from the time the round exits the rifle. 

h. Retained Velocity-the speed of the bullet when it reaches the target. 
Due to drag, the velocity will he reduced. 

3-10. EFFECTS ON TRAJECTORY 

To be effective, the sniper must know marksmanship fundamentals and 
what effect gravity and drag will have on those fundamentals. 

a. Gravity. As soon as the bullet exits the muzzle of the weapon, 
gravity begins to pull it down, requiring the sniper to use his elevation 
adjustment. At extended ranges, the sniper actually aims the muzzle 
of his rifle above his line of sight and lets gravity pull the 
bullet down into the target. Gravity is always present, and the 
sniper must compensate for this through elevation adjustments or 
hold-off techniques. 

b. Drag. Drag is the slowing effect the atmosphere has on the bullet. 
This effect decreases the speed of the bullet according to the air— that is, 
the less dense the air, the leas drag and vice versa. Factors affecting 
drag/density are temperature, altitude /barometric pressure, humidity, 
efficiency of the bullet, and wind. 

(1) Temperature. The higher the temperature, the less dense the air. 
(See Section III.) If the sniper zeros at 60 degrees F and he fires at 
80 degrees, the air is leas dense, thereby causing an increase in muzzle 
velocity and higher point of impact. A 20-degree change equals a 
one-minute elevation change in the strike of the bullet. 

(2) Altitude/barometric pressure. Since the air pressure is less at 
higher altitudes, the air is less dense. Thus, the bullet is more efficient 
and impacts higher due to less drag. (Table 3-1 shows the approximate 



3-26 



FM 23-10 

effect of change of the point of impact from sea level to 10,000 feet if the 
rifle is zeroed at sea level.) Impact will be the point of aim at sea level. 
For example, a rifle zeroed at sea level and fired at a range of 700 meters 
at an altitude of 5,000 feet will hit 1.6 minutes high. 



RANGE 
(METERS) 


2,500 FEET 
*(ASL) 


5,000 FEET 
(ASL) 


10,000 FEET 
(ASL) 


100 


.05 


.08 


.13 


200 


.1 


.2 


.34 


300 


.2 


.4 


.6 


400 


.4 


.5 


.9 


500 


.5 


.9 


1.4 


600 


.6 


1.0 


1.8 


700 


1.0 


1.6 


2.4 


800 


1.3 


1.9 


3.3 


900 


1.6 


2.8 


4.8 


1,000 


1.8 


3.7 


6.0 


•ABOVE SEA LEVEL 



Table 3-1 . Point of Impact rises as altitude Increases 
(data are In MOA). 

(3) Humidity. Humidity varies along with the altitude and 
temperature. Figure 3-19 considers the changes in altitudes. Problems 
can occur if extreme humidity changes exist in the area of operations. 
That is, when humidity goes up, impact goes down; when humidity goes 
down, impact goes up. Since impact is affected by humidity, a 20 percent 
change in humidity equals about one minute as a rule of thumb. Keeping 
a good sniper data book during training and acquiring experience are the 
best teachers. 

(4) Efficiency of the bullet. This is called a bullet's ballistic coefficient. 
The imaginary perfect bullet is rated as being 1.00. Match bullets range 



3-27 



FM 23-10 



from .500 to about .600. The 7.62-mm special ball (M118) is rated at .530 
(Table 3-2). 

(5) Wind. Wind is discussed in Section III. 



RANGE 
(METERS) 


(A) 


(B) 


(C) 


(D) 


100 


2,407 


.7 


NA 


.1 


200 


2,233 


3.0 


1.5 


.2 


300 


2,066 


7.3 


3.0 


.4 


400 


1,904 


14.0 


3.5 


.5 


500 


1,750 


24.0 


4.0 


.7 


600 


1,603 


37.6 


4.5 


.9 


700 


1,466 


56.2 


5.0 


1.0 


800 


1,339 


80.6 


5.0 


1.3 


900 


1,222 


112.5 


6.0 


1.5 


1,000 


1,118 


153.5 


7.0 


1.8 


(A) RETAINED VELOCITY (FEET PER SECOND). 

(B) MIDRANGE TRAJECTORY (INCHES). 

(C) BULLET DROP IN 100-METER INCREMENTS (MINUTES). 

(D) TIME OF FLIGHT (SECONDS). 



Table 3-2. Muzzle velocity data for 7.62-mm 
special ball (M1 18). 

3-11. ANGLE FIRING 

Most practice firing conducted by the sniper team involves the use of 
military range facilities, which are relatively flat. However, as a sniper 
being deployed to other regions of the world, the chance exists Tor 
operating in a mountainous or urban environment. This requires target 
engagements at higher and lower elevations. Unless the sniper takes 
corrective action, bullet impact will be above the point of aim. How high 
the bullet hits is determmed by the range and angle to the target 
(Table 3-3). The amount of elevation change applied to the telescope of 
the rifle for angle firing is known as slope dope. 



3-28 

























FM 23-10 




RANGE 
(METERS) 










SLANT DEGREES 










s 


10 


18 


20 


28 


30 


38 


40 


48 


50 


SB 


•0 


100 


.01 


.04 


.09 


.16 


.25 


.36 


.49 


.63 


.79 


.97 


1.2 


1.4 


200 


.03 


.09 


.2 


.34 


.53 


.76 


1. 


1.3 


1.7 


2. 


2.4 


2.9 


300 


.03 


.1 


.3 


.5 


.9 


1.2 


1.6 


2.1 


2.7 


3.2 


3.9 


4.5 


400 


.05 


.19 


.43 


.76 


1.2 


1.7 


2.3 


2.9 


3.7 


4.5 


5.4 


6.3 


500 


.06 


.26 


.57 


1. 


1.6 


2.3 


3. 


3.9 


4.9 


6. 


7.2 


8.4 


600 


.08 


.31 


.73 


1.3 


2. 


2.9 


3.9 


5. 


6.3 


7.7 


9.2 


10.7 


700 


.1 


.4 


.9 


1.6 


2.5 


3.6 


4.9 


6.3 


7.9 


9.6 


11.5 


13.4 


800 


.13 


.5 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4.4 


5.9 


7.7 


9.6 


11.7 


14. 


16.4 


900 


.15 


.6 


1.3 


2.4 


3.7 


5.3 


7.2 


9.3 


11.6 


14.1 


16.9 


19.8 


1,000 


.2 


.7 


1.6 


2.8 


4.5 


6.4 


8.6 


11. 


13.9 


16.9 


20.2 


23.7 


*RA 


NGE( 


3IVEN 


ISSU 


kNTFV 


VNQE 


(METE 


RS)> 


IOTM 


APDIS 


TANCE 





Table 3-3. Bullet rise at given angle and range in minutes. 

Section III 
EFFECTS OF WEATHER 

For the highly trained sniper, the effects of weather are the main causes 
of error in the strike of the bullet. Wind, mirage, light, temperature, and 
humidity affect the bullet, the sniper, or both. Some effects are minor; 
however, sniping is often done in extremes of weather and all effects must 
be considered. 

3-12. WIND CLASSIFICATION 

Wind poses the biggest problem for the sniper. The effect that wind has 
on the bullet increases with range. This is due mainly to the slowing of 
the bullet's velocity combined with a longer flight time. This allows the 
wind to have a greater effect on the round as distances increase. The result 
is a loss of stability. 

a. Wind also has a considerable effect on the sniper. The stronger 
the wind, the more difficult it is for him to hold the rifle steady. This can 
be partly offset by training, conditioning and the use of supported positions. 



3-29 



FM 23-10 



b. Since the sniper must know how much effect the wind will have on 
the bullet, he must oe able to classify the wind. The best method is to use 
the clock system (Figure 3-19). With the sniper at the center of the clock 
and the target at 12 o'clock, the wind is assigned three values: full, half, 
and no value. Full value means that the force of the wind will have a full 
effect on the flight of the bullet. These winds come from 3 and 9 o'clock. 
Half value means that a wind at the same speed, but from 1,2,4,5,7,8, 
10, and 11 o'clock, will move the bullet only half as much as a 
full-value wind. No value means that a wind from 6 or 12 o'clock will have 
little or no effect on the flight of the bullet. 



WINDS FROM THE LEFT BLOW 
THE BULLET TO THE RIGHT 



WINDS FROM THE RIGHT BLOW 
THE BULLET TO THE LEFT 




Figure 3-19. Clock system. 



3-30 



FM 23-10 

3-13. WIND VELOCITY 

Before adjusting the sight to compensate for wind, the sniper must 
determine wind direction and velocity. He may use certain indicators to 
accomplish this. These are range flags, smoke, trees, grass, rain, and the 
sense of feel. However, the preferred method of aetermining wind 
direction and velocity is reading mirage (see paragraph d below). In most 
cases, wind direction can be determined simply by observing the indicators. 

a. A common method of estimating the velocity of the wind during 
training is to watch the range flag (Figure 3-20). The sniper determines 
the angle between the flag and pole, in degrees, then divides by the constant 
number 4. The result gives the approximate velocity in miles per hour. 





> WIND 

^-15mph 




/ 60' 



Figure 3-20. The Flag method. 



b. If no flag is visible, the sniper holds a piece of paper, grass, cotton, 
or some otherTight material at shoulder level, then drops it. He then 
points directly at the spot where it lands and divides the angle between his 
body and arm by the constant number 4. This gives him the approximate 
wind velocity in miles per hour. 



3-31 



FM 23-10 



c. If these methods cannot be used, the following information is 
helpful in determining velocity. Winds under 3 miles per hour can barely 
be felt, although smoke will drift. A3- to 5-mile-per-hourwind can barely 
be felt on the face. With a 5- to 8-mile-per-hour wind, the leaves in the 
trees are in constant motion, and with a 12- to 15-mile-per-hour wind, 
small trees begin to sway. 

d. A mirage is a reflection of the heat through layers of air at different 
temperatures and density as seen on a warm day (Figure 3-21). With the 
telescope, the sniper can see a mirage as long as there is a difference in 
ground and air temperatures. Proper reading of the mirage enables the 
sniper to estimate wind speed and direction with a high degree of accuracy. 
The sniper uses the M49 observation telescope to read the mirage. 
Since the wind nearest to midrange has the greatest effect on the bullet, 
he tries to determine velocity at that point. He can do this in one of two ways: 

(1) He focuses on an object at midrange, then places the scope back 
onto the target without readjusting the focus. 

(2) He can also focus on the target, then back off the focus 
one-quarter turn counterclockwise. This makes the target appear fuzzy, 
but the mirage will be clear. 



3-5 MPH 




5-8 MPH 



BOILING 
MIRAGE 




8-12 MPH 



Figure 3-21. Types of mirages. 



3-32 



FM 23-10 



e. As observed through the telescope, the mirage appears to move 
with the same velocity as the wind, except when blowing straight into 
or away from the scope. Then, the mirage gives the appearance of 
moving straight upward with no lateral movement. This is called a 
boiling mirage. A boiling mirage may also be seen when the wind is 
constantly changing direction. For example, a full-value wind blowing 
from 9 o'clock to 3 o'clock suddenly changes direction. The mirage will 
appear to stop moving from left to right and present a boiling appearance. 
When this occurs, the inexperienced observer directs the sniper to fire 
with the "0" wind. As the sniper fires, the wind begins blowing from 
3 o'clock to 9 o'clock, causing the bullet to miss the target therefore, firing 
in a "boil" can hamper shot placement. Unless there is a no-value wind, 
the sniper must wait until the boil disappears. In general, changes in the 
velocity of the wind, up to about 12 miles per hour, can be readily 
determmed by observing the mirage. Beyond that speed, the movement 
of the mirage is too fast for detection of minor changes. 

3-14. CONVERSION OF WIND VELOCITY TO MINUTES OF ANGLE 

All telescopic sights have windage adjustments that are graduated in 
minutes or angle or fractions thereof. A minute of angle is l/60th of a 
degree (Figure 3-22, page 3-34). This equals about 1 inch (1.145 inches) 
for every 100 meters. 

EXAMPLE 
1 MOA = 2 inches at 200 meters 
1 MOA = 5 inches at 500 meters 

a. Snipers use minutes of angle (Figure 3-22, page 3-34) to determine 
and adjust the elevation and windage needed on the weapon's scope. 
After finding the wind direction and velocity in miles per hour, the sniper 
must then convert it into minutes of angle, using the wind formula as a 
rule of thumb only. The wind formula is— 

RANGE (hundreds) divided by 1QO VELOCITY (mph) = Minutes 

CONSTANT ^ alue 

The constant depends on the target's range. 

100 to 500 "C"=15 
600 "C" =14 

700 to 800 "C" =13 
900 "C" =12 

1,000 "C"=11 



3-33 



FM 23-10 



If the target is 700 meters away and the wind velocity is 10 mph, the 
formula is— 

7x10 = 5.38 minutes or 5 1/2 minutes 

13 

This determines the number of minutes for a full-value wind. For a 
half-value wind, the 5.38 would be divided in half. 



1 DEGREE 




1 MOA =1/17.8 OF 1 MIL 

1 MOA = 1/60TH OF 1 DEGREE 




INSERT 



METERS } 250 



SNIPER 
POSITION 



500 750 1,000 



1 
MOA 



2.5 in 
9.8 cm 



5 in 
19.6 cm 



8.6 in 
29.4 cm 



11.5 in 
39.3 cm 



Figure 3-22. Minutes of angle. 

b. The observer makes his own adjustment estimations, then 
compares them to the wind conversion table, which can be a valuable 
training tool. He must not rely on this table; if it is lost, his ability to 
perform the mission could be severely hampered. Until the observer 
gains skill in estimating wind speed and computing sight changes, he may 
refer to Table 3-4. 



3-34 



FM 23-10 



RANGE 
(METERS) 


WIND 
VALUE 


3MPH 
MIN IN 


SMPH 
MIN IN 


7MPH 
MIN IN 


10MPH 
MIN IN 


200 


HALF 
FULL 


0.0 

0.5 


0.4 
0.8 


0.5 
0.5 


0.8 

1.2 


0.5 
1.0 


0.8 
1.7 


0.5 
1.0 


1.2 
2.4 


300 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 
0.5 


0.9 
1.7 


0.5 

1.0 


1.3 
2.7 


0.5 
1.0 


1.9 
3.8 


1.0 
1.5 


2.7 
5.4 


400 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 
0.5 


1.4 
2.9 


0.5 
1.0 


2.4 
4.8 


1.0 
1.5 


3.3 
8.7 


1.0 
2.0 


4.8 
9.8 


500 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 
1.0 


2.3 
4.5 


0.5 

1.5 


3.8 

7.5 


1.0 
2.0 


5.3 
10.5 


1.5 

2.5 


7.5 
15.0 


600 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 
1.0 


3.0 
7.0 


1.0 
1.5 


5.0 
11.0 


1.0 
2.5 


8.0 
15.0 


1.5 
3.5 


11.0 
21.0 


700 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 
1.0 


4.0 
9.0 


'1.0 
2.0 


7.0 
15.0 


1.5 
2.5 


10.0 
21.0 


2.0 
4.0 


15.0 
29.0 


800 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 

1.5 


8.0 

11.0 


1.0 
2.0 


10.0 
19.0 


1.5 
3.0 


13.0 
27.0 


2.0 

4.5 


19.0 
38.0 


900 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 
3.5 


7.0 
15.0 


1.0 

2.5 


12.0 
24.0 


1.5 
3.5 


17.0 
34.0 


2.5 
5.0 


24.0 
49.0 


1000 


HALF 
FULL 


1.0 
1.5 


9.0 
18.0 


1.5 
2.5 


15.0 
30.0 


2.0 
4.0 


21.0 
42.0 


2.5 
5.5 


3.00 
60.0 



RANGE 
(METERS) 


WIND 
VALUE 


12MPH 
MIN IN 


15MPH 
MIN IN 


18MPH 
MIN IN 


20MPH 
MIN IN 


200 


HALF 
FULL 


0.5 

1.5 


1.3 
£9 


1.0 
1.5 


1.8 
3.6 


1.0 
2.0 


2.2 
4.3 


1.0 
2.0 


2.4 

4.8 


300 


HALF 
FULL 


1.0 
2.0 


3.3 

6.5 


1.0 
2.5 


4.0 
8.1 


1.5 
3.0 


4.9 
9.8 


1.5 
3.5 


5.4 
10.9 


400 


HALF 
FULL 


1.5 
2.5 


5.8 
11.5 


1.5 
3.5 


7.2 

14.4 


2.0 
4.0 


8.6 
17.3 


2.0 
4.5 


9.6 

19.2 


500 


HALF 
FULL 


1.5 
3.5 


9.0 
18.0 


2.0 
4.0 


11.3 
22.8 


2.5 
5.0 


13.5 
27.0 


2.5 
5.5 


15.0 
30.0 


600 


HALF 
FULL 


1.5 
4.0 


13.0 
28.0 


2.5 
5.0 


16.0 
32.0 


3.0 
8.0 


19.0 
39.0 


3.5 
8.5 


22.0 
43.0 


700 


HALF 
FULL 


2.5 
4.5 


18.0 
35.0 


3.0 
6.0 


22.0 
44.0 


3.5 
7.0 


28.0 
53.0 


4.0 
7.5 


29.0 
59.0 


800 


HALF 
FULL 


2.5 
5.5 


23.0 
48.0 


3.5 
8.5 


26.0 
57.0 


4.0 
8.0 


35.0 
69.0 


4.5 
9.0 


38.0 
77.0 


900 


HALF 
FULL 


3.0 
6.0 


29.0 
56.0 


3.5 
7.5 


36.0 
73.0 


4.5 
9.0 


44.0 
97.0 


5.0 
10.0 


49.0 
97.0 


1000 


HALF 
FULL 


3.5 
8.5 


36.0 
72.0 


4.0 
8.0 


45.0 
90.0 


5.0 
10.0 


54.0 
103.0 


5.5 
11.5 


60.0 
120.0 



Table 3-4. Wind conversion table. 



3-35 



FM 23-10 



3-15. EFFECTS OF LIGHT 

Light does not affect the trajectory of the bullet; however, it does affect 
the way the sniper sees the target through the scope. This effect can be 
compared to the refraction (bending) of light through a medium, such as 
a prism or a fish bowl. The same effect, although not as drastic, can be 
observed on a day with high humidity and with sunlight from high angles. 
The only way the sniper can adjust for this effect is to refer to past firing 
recorded in the sniper data book. He can then compare different light 
and humidity conditions and their effect on marksmanship. Light may 
also affect firing on unknown distance ranges since it affects range 
determination capabilities. 

3-16. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE 

Temperature affects the firer, ammunition, and density of the air. 
When ammunition sits in direct sunlight, the bum rate of powder is 
increased, resulting in greater muzzle velocity and higher impact. 
The greatest effect is on the density of the air. As the temperature rises, 
the air density is lowered. Since there is leas resistance, velocity increases 
and once again the point of impact rises. This is in relation to the 
temperature at which the rifle was zeroed, If the sniper zeros at 50 degrees 
and he is now firing at 90 degrees, the point of impact rises considerably. 
How high it rises is best determined once again by past firing recorded m 
the sniper data book. The general role, however, is that when the rifle is 
zeroed, a 20-degree increase in temperature will raise the point of impact 
by one minute; conversely, a 20-degree decrease will drop the point of 
impact by one minute. 

3-17. EFFECTS OF HUMIDITY 

Humidity varies along with the altitude and temperature. The sniper can 
encounter problems if drastic humidity changes occur in his area 
of operation. Remember, if humidity goes up, impact goes down; if 
humidity goes down, impact goes up. As a rule of thumb, a 20-percent 
change will equal about one minute, affecting the point of impact. 
The sniper should keep a good sniper data book during training and refer 
to his own record. 

Section IV 
SNIPER DATA BOOK 

The sniper data book contains a collection of data cards. The sniper uses 
the data cards to record firing results and all elements that had an effect 
on firing the weapon. This can vary from information about weather 
conditions to the attitude of the firer on that particular day. The sniper 



3-36 



FM 23-10 

can refer to this information later to understand his weapon, the weather 
effects, and his shooting ability on a given day. One of the most important 
items of information he will record is the cold barrel zero of his weapon. 
A cold barrel zero refers to the first round fired from the weapon at a 
given range. It is critical that the sniper shoots the first round daily at 
different ranges. For example, Monday, 400 meters; Tuesday, 500 meters; 
Wednesday, 600 meters. When the barrel warms up, later shots begin 
to group one or two minutes higher or lower, depending on specific 
rifle characteristics. Information is recorded on DA Form 5785-R 
(Sniper's Data Card) (Figure 3-23). (A blank copy of this form is located 
in the back of this publication for local reproduction.) 



SNIPER'S DATA CAHD 



DISTANCE TO TARGET. 



.METERS 



HUE ANO SCOPE NO 



DATE 



ELEVATION 



WWOAOE 



CaUmUH 



n*t&J* 



U-n*+ 



aete 



114? 



MWAQE TEMP HOUR 

**<« lip l -mr 



/f 3H*q/ 




£Q(3£flfiflQaO 



USED 

c 



CORRECT 

6/ J 



Lfa. 



/\ 



8? 
*»T 






0- T 



NOTE: THE REQUIRED TARGETS WILL BE DRAWN IN BY HAND TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE 
UNIT. 
0AFORMS7lfrR,JUNM 



Figure 3-23. Example of completed DA Form 5785-R. 



3-18. ENTRIES 

Three phases in writing information on the data card (Figure 3-23) are 
before firing, during firing, and after firing. 

a. Before Firing. Information that is written before firing is— 

(1) Range. The distance to the target. 

(2) Rifle and scope number. The serial numbers of the rifle and scope. 



3-37 



FM 23-10 

(3) Date. Date of firing. 

(4) Ammunition. Type and lot number of ammunition. 

(5) Light. Amount of light (overcast, clear, and so forth). 

(6) Mirage. Whether a mirage can be seem or not (good, bad, fair, 
and so forth). 

(7) Temperature. Temperature on the range. 

(8) Hour. Time of firing. 

(9) Light (diagram). Draw an arrow in the direction the light 
is shining. 

(10) Wind. Draw an arrow in the direction the wind is blowing, and 
record its average velocity and cardinal direction (N, NE, S, SW, and 
so forth). 

b. During Firing. Information that is written while firing is— 

(1) Elevation. Elevation setting used and any correction needed. 
For example: The target distance is 600 meters; the sniper sets the 
elevation dial to 6. The sniper fires and the round hits the target 6 inches 
low of center. He then adds one minute (one click) of elevation (+1). 

(2) Windage. Windage setting used and any correction needed. 
For example The sniper fires at a 600-meter target with windage setting 
on 0; the round impacts 15 inches right of center. He will men ada 
2 1/2 minutes left to the windage dial (L/2 1/2). 

(3) Shot. The column of information about a particular shot. 
For example: Column 1 is for the first round; column 10 is for the 
tenth round. 

(4) Elevation. Elevation used (6 +1, 6,6 -1, and so on). 

(5) Wind. Windage used (L/2 1/2, O, R/l/2, and so on). 

(6) Call. Where the aiming point was when the weapon fired. 

(7) Large silhouette. Used to record the exact impact of the round on 
the target. This is recorded by writing the shot's number on the large 
silhouette in the same place it hit the target. 

c. After Firing. After firing, the sniper records any comments about 
firing in the remarks section. This can he comments about the weapon, 
firing conditions (time allowed for fire), or his condition (nervous, felt 
bad, felt good, and so forth). 

3-19. ANALYSIS 

When the sniper leaves the firing line, he compares weather conditions 
to the information needed to hit the point of aim /point of impact. 
Since he fires in all types of weather conditions, he must be aware 



3-38 



FM 23-10 

of temperature, light, mirage, and wind. The sniper must consider other 
major points or tasks to complete 

a. Compare sight settings with previous firing sessions. If the sniper 
always has to fine-tune for windage or elevation, there is a chance he needs 
a sight change (slip a scale). 

b. Compare ammunition by lot number for best rifle and ammunition 
combination. 

c. Compare all groups fired under each condition. Check the low 
and high shots as well as those to the left and the right of the main 
group— the less dispersion, the better. If groups are tight, they are easily 
moved to the center of the target; if loose, there is a problem. Check the 
scope focus and make sure the rifle is cleaned correctly. Remarks in the 
sniper data book will also help. 

d. Make corrections. Record corrections in the sniper data book, 
such as position and sight adjustment information, to ensure retention. 

e. Analyze a group on a target. This is important for marksmanship 
training. The firer may not notice errors during firing, but errors become 
apparent when analyzing a group. This can only be done if the sniper data 
book has been used correctly. A checklist that will aid in shot 
group/performance analysis follows: 

(1) Group tends to be low and right. 

• Left hand not positioned properly. 

• Right elbow slipping. 

• Improper trigger control. 

(2) Group scattered about the target. 

• Incorrect eye relief or sight picture. 

• Concentration on the target (iron sights). 

• Stock weld changed. 

• Unstable firing position. 

(3) Good group but with several erratic shots. 

• Flinching. Shots may be anywhere. 

• Bucking. Shots from 7 to 10 o'clock. 

• Jerking. Shots may be anywhere. 

(4) Group strung up and down through the target. 

• Breathing while firing. 

• Improper vertical alignment of cross hairs. 

• Stock weld changed. 

3-39 



FM 23-10 



(5) Compact group out of the target. 

• Incorrect zero. 

• Failure to compensate for wind. 

• Bad natural point of aim. 

• Scope shadow. 

(6) Group center of the target out the bottom. 

• Scope shadow. 

• Position of the rifle changed in the shoulder. 

(7) Horizontal group across the target. 

• Scope shadow. 

• Canted weapon. 

• Bad natural point of aim. 

Section V 
HOLDOFF 

Holdoff is shifting the point of aim to achieve a desired point of impact. 
Certain situations, such as multiple targets at varying ranges and rapidly 
changing winds, do not allow proper windage and elevation adjustments. 
Therefore, familiarization and practice of elevation and windage holdoff 
techniques prepare the sniper to meet these situations. 

3-20. ELEVATION 

This technique is used only when the sniper does not have time to change 
his sight setting. The sniper rarely achieves pinpoint accuracy when 
holding off, since a minor error in range determination or a lack of a 
precise aiming point might cause the bullet to miss the desired point. 
He uses holdoff with the sniperscope only if several targets appear at various 
ranges, and time does not permit adjusting the scope for each target. 

a. The sniper uses holdoff to hit a target at ranges other than the 
range for which the rifle is presently adjusted. When the sniper aims 
directly at a target at ranges greater than the set range, his bullet will hit 
below the point of aim. At lesser ranges, his bullet will hit higher than 
the point of aim. If the sniper understands this and knows about 
trajectory and bullet drop, he will be able to hit the target at ranges other 
than that for which the rifle was adjusted. For example, the sniper adjusts 
the rifle for a target located 500 meters downrange and another target 
appears at a range of 600 meters. The holdoff would be 25 inches, that is, 
the sniper should hold off 25 inches above the center of visible mass in 
order to hit the center of mass of that particular target (Figure 3-24). If another 



3-40 



FM 23-10 



target were to appear at 400 meters, the sniper would aim 14 inches below 
the ureter of visible mass in order to hit the center of mass (Figure 3-25). 




Figure 3-24. Elevation. 




SNIPER'S 

posmoN 



129" 



98.e" 



LINE 

OF 

SIGHT 



SCALE: DUE TO LENGTH OF THE LINE OF FLIGHT 
IN PROPORTION TO THE TRAJECTORY'S HEIGHT, 
SCALE IS NOT REPRESENTED. 



700M DOOM oonu J' 



70* 



10OOM 



ILLUSTRATING: 

• HIGHEST POINT OF FLIGHT FROM 300 
METERS T0 1,000 METERS IN 100-METER 
INCREMENTS. 

• BULLET DROP FOR EACH SUCCEEDING 
100 METERS. 



Figure 3-25. Trajectory chart. 



3-41 



FM 23-10 



b. The vertical mil dots on the M3A scope's reticle can be used as 
aiming points when using elevation holdoffs. For example, if the sniper 
has to engage a target at 500 meters and the scope is set at 400 meters, he 
would place the first mil dot 5 inches below the vertical line on the target's 
center mass. This gives the sniper a 15-inch holdoff at 500 meters. 

3-21. WINDAGE 

The sniper can use holdoff in three ways to compensate for the effect of wind. 

a. When using the M3A scope, the sniper uses the horizontal mil dots 
on the reticle to hold off for wind. For example, if the sniper has a target 
at 500 meters that requires a 10-inch holdoff, he would place the target's 
center mass halfway between the cross hair and the first mil dot (1/2 mil) 
(Figure 3-26). 

b. When holding off, the sniper aims into the wind. If the wind is 
moving from the right to left, his point of aim is to the right. If the wind 
is movmg from left to right, his point of aim is to the left. 

c. Constant practice in wind estimation can bring about proficiency 
in making sight adjustments or learning to apply holdoff correctly. If the 
sniper misses the target and the point of impact of the round is observed, 
he notes the lateral distance or his error and refires, holding off that 
distance in the opposite direction. 



e 



Figure 3-26. Holdoff for 7.62-mm special ball (M118). 



3-42 



FM 23-10 



Section VI 
ENGAGEMENT OF MOVING TARGETS 

Engaging moving targets not only requires the sniper to determine the 
target distance and wind effects on the round, but he must also consider 
the lateral and speed angle of the target, the round's time of flight, and 
the placement of a proper lead to compensate for both. These added 
variables increase the chance of a miss. Therefore, the sniper should 
engage moving targets when it is the only option. 

3-22. TECHNIQUES 

To engage moving targets, the sniper employs the following techniques: 

• Leading. 

• Tracking. 

• Trapping or ambushing. 

• Tracking and holding. 

• Firing a snap shot. 

a. Leading. Engaging moving targets requires the sniper to place the 
cross hairs ahead of the target's movement. The distance the cross hairs 
are placed in front of the target's movement is called a lead. There are 
four factors in determining leads: 

(1) Speed of the tarqet. As a target moves faster, it will move a greater 
distance during the bullet's flight. Therefore, the lead increases as the 
target's speed increases. 

(2) Angle of movement. A target moving perpendicular to the bullet's 
flight path moves a greater lateral distance than a target moving at an 
angle away from or toward the bullet's path. Therefore, a target moving 
at a 45-degree angle covers less ground than a target moving at a 
90-degree angle. 

(3) Range to the target. The farther away a target is, the longer it takes 
for the bullet to reach it. Therefore, the lead must be increased as the 
distance to the target increases. 

(4) Wind effects. The sniper must consider how the wind will affect 
the trajectory or the round. A wind blowing against the target's direction 
of movement requires less of a lead than a wind blowing in the same 
direction as the target's movement. 

b. Tracking, hacking requires the sniper to establish an aiming 
point ahead of the target s movement and to maintain it as the weapon 
is fired. This requires the weapon and body position to be moved while 
following the target and firing. 



3-43 



FM 23-10 



c. Trapping or Ambushing. Trapping or ambushing is the sniper's 
preferred method of engaging moving targets. The sniper must 
establish an aiming point ahead of the target and pull the trigger when 
the target reaches it. This method allows the sniper's weapon and body 
position to remain motionless. With practice, a sniper can determine 
exact leads and aiming points using the horizontal stadia lines in the 
mil dots in the M3A. 

d. Tracking and Holding. The sniper uses this technique to engage 
an erratically moving target. That is, while the target is moving, the sniper 
keeps his cross hairs centered as much as possible and adjusts his position 
with the target. When the target stops, the sniper quickly perfects his hold 
and fires. This technique requires concentration and discipline to keep 
from firing before the target comes to a complete halt. 

e. Firing a Snap Shot. A sniper may often attempt to engage a target 
that only presents itself briefly, then resumes cover. Once he establishes 
a pattern, he can aim in the vicinity of the target's expected appearance 
and fire a snap shot at the moment of exposure. 

3-23. COMMON ERRORS 

When engaging moving targets, the sniper makes common errors because 
he is under greater stress than with a stationary target. There are more 
considerations, such as retaining a steady position and the correct aiming 
point, how fast the target is moving, and how far away it is. The more 
practice a sniper has shooting moving targets, the better he will become. 
Some common mistakes are as follows: 

a. The sniper has a tendency to watch his target instead of his 
aiming point. He must force himself to watch his lead point. 

b. The sniper may jerk or flinch at the moment his weapon fires 
because he thinks he must fire NOW. This can be overcome through 
practice on a live-fire range. 

c. The sniper may hurry and thus forget to apply wind as needed. 
Windage must he calculated for moving targets just as for stationary targets. 
Failure to do this when squiring a lead will result in a miss. 

3-24. CALCULATION OF LEADS 

Once the required lead has been determined, the sniper should use the 
mil scale in the scope for precise holdoff . The mil scale can be mentally 
sectioned into 1/4-mil increments for leads. The chosen point on the mil 
scale becomes the sniper's point of concentration just as the cross hairs 
are for stationary targets. The sniper concentrates on the lead point and 



3-44 



FM 23-10 

fires the weapon when the target is at this point. The following formulas 
are used to determine moving target leads: 

TIME OF FLIGHT X TARGET SPEED = LEAD. 

Time of flight= flight time of the round in seconds. 

Target speed = speed the target is moving in fps. 

Lead = distance aiming point must be placed ahead of 
movement in feet. 

Average speed of a man during— 

Slow patrol = 1 fps/0.8 mph 

Fast patrol = 2 fps/ 1.3 mph 

Slow walk = 4 fps/2.5 mph 

Fast walk = 6 fps/ 3. 7 mph 

To convert leads in feet to meters: 

LEAD IN FEET X 0,3048 = METERS 

To convert leads in meters to mils: 

LEAD IN METERS x 1,000 = MIL LEAD 

RANGE TO TARGET 

Section VII 
NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL 

Performance of long-range precision fire is difficult at best. Enemy NBC 
warfare creates new problems for the sniper. Not only must the sniper 
properly execute the fundamentals of marksmanship and contend 
with the forces of nature, he must overcome obstacles presented by 
protective equipment. Testing conducted by the US Army Sniper School, 
Fort Benning, GA during 1989 to 1990 uncovered several problem areas. 
Evaluation of this testing discovered ways to help the sniper overcome 
these problems while firing in an NBC environment. 

3-25. PROTECTIVE MASK 

The greatest problem while firing the M24 with the M17-series protective 
mask was that of recoil breaking the seal of the mask. Also, due to filter 
elements and hard eye lenses, the sniper could not gain and maintain 
proper stock weld and eye relief. Additionally, the observer could 



3-45 



FM 23-10 



not gain the required eye relief for observation through his 
M49 observation telescope. However, testing of the M25-series 
protective mask provided the following results: 

a. Because of its separate filtering canister, the stock weld was gained 
and maintained with minimal effort. 

b. Its flexible face shield allowed for excellent observation. This also 
allowed the sniper and observer to achieve proper eye relief, which was 
needed for observation with their respective telescopes. 

3-26. MISSION-ORIENTED PROTECTION POSTURE 

Firing while in MOPP has a significant effect on the ability to deliver 
precision fire. The following problems and solutions have been identified 

a. Eye Relief. Special emphasis must be made in maintaining proper 
eye relief and the absence of scope shadow. Maintaining consistent stock 
weld is a must. 

b. Trigger Control. Problems encountered with trigger control 
consist of the sense of touch and stock drag. 

(1) Sense of touch. When gloves are worn, the sniper cannot 
determine the amount of pressure he is applying to the trigger. This 
is of particular importance if the sniper has the trigger adjusted for a 
light pull. 'Raining with a glove will be beneficial; however, the trigger 
should be adjusted to allow the sniper to feel the trigger without 
accidental discharge. 

(2) Stock drag. While training, the sniper should have his observer 
watch his trigger finger to ensure that the finger and glove are not touching 
any part of the rifle but the trigger. The glove or finger resting on the 
trigger guard moves the rifle as the trigger is pulled to the rear. The sniper 
must wear a well-fitted glove. 

c. Vertical Sight Picture. The sniper naturally cants the rifle into the 
cheek of the face while firing with a protective mask. 

d. Sniper/Observer Communications. The absence of a voice emitter 
on the M2S-series protective mask creates an obstacle in relaying 
information. The team either speaks louder or uses written messages. 
A system of foot taps, finger taps, or hand signals may be devised. 
Communication is a must; training should include the development and 
practice of communications at different MOPP levels. 



3-46 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 4 
FIELD TECHNIQUES 

The primary mission of the sniper team is to eliminate selected 
enemy targets with long-range precision fire. How well the sniper 
accomplishes his mission depends on knowledge, understanding 
and application of various field techniques that allow him to move, 
hide, observe, and detect targets. This chapter discusses the field 
techniques and skills that the sniper must learn before employment 
in support of combat operations. The sniper's application of these 
skills will affect his survival on the battlefield. 

Section I 
CAMOUFLAGE 

Camouflage is one of the basic weapons of war. It can mean the difference 
between a successful or unsuccessful mission. To the sniper team, it can 
mean the difference between life and death. Camouflage measures are 
important since the team cannot afford to be detected at any time while 
moving alone, as part of another element, or while operating from a 
firing position. Marksmanship training teaches the sniper to hit a target, 
and a Knowledge of camouflage teaches him how to avoid becoming 
a target. Paying attention to camouflage fundamentals is a mark of a 
well-trained sniper. (See FM 5-20 for more details.) 

4-1. TARGET INDICATORS 

To become proficient in camouflage, the sniper team must first 
understand target indicators. Target indicators are anything a soldier 
does or fails to do that could result m detection. A sniper team must know 
and understand target indication not only to move undetected, but also to 
detect enemy movement. Target indicators are sound, movement, 
improper camouflage, disturbance of wildlife, and odors. 



4-1 



FM 23-10 

a. Sound. 

• Most noticeable during hours of darkness. 

• Caused by movement, equipment rattling, or talking. 

• Small noises may be dismissed as natural, but talking will not. 

b. Movement. 

• Most noticeable during hours of daylight. 

• The human eye is attracted to movement. 

• Quick or jerky movement will be detected faster than 
slow movement. 

c. Improper camouflage. 

• Shine. 

• Outline. 

• Contrast with the background. 

d. Disturbance of wildlife. 

• Birds suddenly flying away. 

• Sudden stop of animal noises. 

• Animals being frightened. 

e. Odors. 

• Cooking. 

• Smoking. 

• Soap and lotions. 

• Insect repellents. 

4-2. BASIC METHODS 

The sniper team can use three basic methods of camouflage. It may use 
one of these methods or a combination of all three to accomplish 
its objective. The three basic methods a sniper team can use are hiding, 
blending, and deceiving. 

a. Hiding. Hiding is used to conceal the body from observation by 
lying behind an objector thick vegetation. 

b. Blending. Blending is used to match personal camouflage with 
the surrounding area to a point where the sniper cannot be seen. 

c. Deceiving. Deceiving is used to fool the enemy into false 
conclusions about the location of the sniper team. 

4-3. TYPES OF CAMOUFLAGE 

The two types of camouflage that the sniper team can use are natural 
and artificial 



4-2 



FM 23-10 



a. Natural. Natural camouflage is vegetation or materials that are 
native to the given area. The sniper augments his appearance by using 
natural camouflage. 

b. Artificial. Artificial camouflage is any material or substance that 
is produced for the purpose of coloring or covering something in order to 
conceal it. Camouflage sticks or face paints are used to cover all exposed 
areas of skin such as face, hands, and the back of the neck. The parts of 
the face that form shadows should be lightened, and the parts that shine 
should be darkened. The three types of camouflage patterns the sniper 
team uses are striping, blotching, and combination. 

(1) Striping. Used when in heavily wooded areas and when leafy 
vegetation is scarce. 

(2) Blotching. Used when an area is thick with leafy vegetation. 

(3) Combination. Used when moving through changing terrain. It is 
normally the best all-round pattern. 

4-4. GHILLIE SUIT 

The ghillie suit is a specially made camouflage uniform that is covered 
with irregular patterns of garnish or netting (Figure 4-1). 

a. Ghillie suits can be made from BDUs or one-piece aviator-type 
uniforms. Turning the uniform inside out places the pockets inside 
the suit. This protects items in the pockets from damage caused by 
crawling on the ground. The front of the ghillie suit should be covered 
with canvas or some type of heavy cloth to reinforce it. The knees and 
elbows should be covered with two layers of canvas, and the seam of the 
crotch should be reinforced with heavy nylon thread since these areas are 
prone to wear out quicker. 

b. The garnish or netting should cover the shoulders and reach down 
to the elbows on the sleeves. The garnish applied to the back of the suit 
should be long enough to cover the sides of the sniper when he is in the 
prone position. A bush hat is also covered with garnish or netting. 
The garnish should belong enough to breakup the outline of the sniper s 
neck, but it should not be so long in front to obscure his vision or 
hinder movement. 

e. A veil can be made from a net or piece of cloth covered with garnish 
or netting. It covers the weapon and sniper's head when in a firing position. 
The veil can be sewn into the ghillie suit or carried separately. A ghillie 
suit does not make one invisible and is only a camouflage base. 
Natural vegetation should be added to help blend with the surroundings. 



4-3 



FM 23-10 



CANVAS CAN BE STITCHED 

WITH NYLON TWINE OR GLUED 

WITH RUBBERIZED CEMENT 



PLACEMENT OF NETTING 
AND GARNISH 






Figure 4-1. Ghillle suit. 

4-5. FIELD-EXPEDIENT CAMOUFLAGE 

The sniper team may have to use field-expedient camouflage if other 
means are not available. Instead of camouflage sticks or face paint, the 
team may use charcoal, walnut stain, mud, or whatever works. The team 
will not use oil or grease due to the strong odor. Natural vegetation can 
be attached to the body by boot bands or rubber bands or by cutting holes 
in the uniform. 

a. The sniper team also camouflages its equipment. However, the 
camouflage must not interfere with or hinder the operation of 
the equipment. 

(1) Rifles. The sniper weapon system and the M16/M203 should also. 
be camouflaged to break up their outlines. The sniper weapon system can 
be carried in a "drag bag" (Figure 4-2), which is a rifle case made of canvas 
and covered with garnish similar to the ghillie suit. 

(2) Optics. Optics used by the sniper team must also be camouflaged 
to breakup the outline and to reduce the possibility of light reflecting off 
the lenses. Lenses can be covered with mesh-type webbing or nylon 
hose material. 

(3) ALICE pack. If the sniper uses the ALICE pack while wearing 
the ghillie suit, he must camouflage the pack the same as the suit. 



4-4 



FM 23-10 



45 INCHES 



*nir«wwwwm»»»"W"""<»"»""'"»tflW 




-...««..—. i i i^ 



Figure 4-2. Drag bag. 

b. The sniper team alters its camouflage to blend in with changes in 
vegetation ana terrain in different geographic areas. Examples of such 
changes are as follows: 

(1) Snow areas. Blending of colors is more effective than texture 
camouflage in snowy areas. In areas with heavy snow or in wooded areas 
with trees covered with snow, a full white camouflage suit should be worn. 
In areas with snow on the ground but not on the trees, white trousers with 
green and brown tops should be worn. 

(2) Desert areas. In sandy desert areas that have little vegetation, the 
blending of tan and brown colors is important. In these areas, the sniper 
team must make full use of the terrain and the vegetation that is available 
to remain unnoticed. 

(3) Jungle areas. In jungle areas, textured camouflage, contrasting 
colors, and natural vegetation must be used. 

(4) Urban areas. In urban areas, the sniper team's camouflage 
should be a blended color (shades of gray usually work best). 
Texutred camouflage is not as important in tnese environments. 

c. The sniper team must be camouflage conscious from the time it 
departs on a mission until it returns. It must constantly use the terrain, 
vegetation, and shadows to remain undetected. At no other time during 
the mission will the sniper team have a greater tendency to be careless 
than during its return to a friendly area. Fatigue and undue haste may 
override caution and planning. Therefore, the team needs to pay close 
attention to its camouflage discipline on return from missions. 



4-5 



FM 23-10 



4-6. COVER AND CONCEALMENT 

The proper understanding and application of the principles of cover and 
concealment used with the proper application of camouflage protects the 
sniper team from enemy observation. 

a. Cover is natural or artificial protection from the fire of 
enemy weapons. Natural cover (ravines, hollows, reverse slopes) and 
artificial cover (fighting positions, trenches, walls) protect the sniper team 
from flat trajectory fires and partly protect it from high-angle fires and the 
effects of nuclear explosions. Even the smallest depression or fold in the 
ground may provide some cover when the team needs it most. A 6-inch 
depression, properly used, may provide enough cover to save the sniper 
team under fire. Snipers must always look for and take advantage of all 
the cover that the terrain provides. By combining this habit with proper 
movement techniques, the team can protect itself from enemy fire. To get 
protection from enemy fire when moving, the team uses routes that put 
cover between itself and the enemy. 

b. Concealment is natural or artificial protection from enemy 
observation. The surroundings may provide natural concealment that 
needs no change before use (bushes, grass, and shadows). The sniper 
team creates artificial concealment from materials such as burlap and 
camouflage nets, or it can move natural materials (bushes, leaves, and 
grass) from their original location. The sniper team must consider the 
effects of the change of seasons on the concealment provided by both 
natural and artificial materials, 'he principles of concealment include 
the following 

(1) Avoid unnecessary movement. Remain still— movement attracts 
attention. The position of the sniper team is concealed when the team 
remains still, but the sniper's position is easily detected when the 
team moves. Movement against a stationary background makes the team 
stand out clearly. When the team must change positions, it moves 
carefully over a concealed route to a new position, preferably during 
limited visibility. Snipers move inches at a time, slowly and cautiously, 
always scanning ahead for the next position. 

(2) Use all available concealment. Available concealment includes 
the following 

(a) Background. Background is important the sniper team must 
blend with it to prevent detection. The trees, bushes, grass, earth, and 
man-made structures that form the background vary in color 
and appearance. This makes it possible for the team to blend with them. 
The team selects trees or bushes to blend with the uniform and to absorb 
the figure outline. Snipers must always assume they are under observation. 



4-6 



FM 23-10 



(b) Shadows. The sniper team in the open stands out clearly, but the 
sniper team in the shadows is difficult to see. Shadows exist under most 
conditions, day and night. A sniper team should never fire from the edge 
of a wood line; it should fire from a position inside the wood line (in the 
shade or shadows provided by the tree tops). 

(3) Stay low to observe. A low silhouette makes it difficult for the 
enemy to see a sniper team. Therefore, the team observes from a crouch, 
a squat, or a prone position. 

(4) Avoid shiny reflections. Reflection of light on a shiny surface 
instantly attracts attention and can be seen From great distances. 
The sniper uncovers his rifle scope only when indexing and aiming at 
a target. He uses optics cautiously in bright sunshine because of the 
reflections they cause. 

(5) Avoid skylining. Figures on the skyline can be seen from a great 
distance, even at night, because a dark outline stands out against the 
lighter sky. The silhouette formed by the body makes a good target. 

(6) Alter familiar outlines. Military equipment and the human body 
are familiar outlines to the enemy. The sniper team alters or disguises 
these revealing shapes by using the ghillie suit or outer smock that is 
covered with irregular patterns of garnish. The team must alter its outline 
from the head to the soles of the boots. 

(7) Observe noise discipline. Noise, such as talking, can be picked up 
by enemy patrols or observation posts. The sniper team silences gear 
before a mission so that it makes no sound when the team walks or runs. 

Section II 
MOVEMENT 

A sniper team's mission and method of employment differ in many ways 
from those of the infantry squad. One of the most noticeable differences 
is the movement technique used by the sniper team. Movement by teams 
must not be detected or even suspected by the enemy. Because of this, a 
sniper team must master individual sniper movement techniques. 

4-7. RULES OF MOVEMENT 

When moving, the sniper team should always remember the following rules 

a. Always assume the area is under enemy observation. 

b. Move slowly. A sniper counts his movement progress by feet 
and inches. 

c. Do not cause overhead movement of trees, bushes, or tall grasses 
by rubbing against them. 

d. Plan every movement and move in segments of the route at a time. 



4-7 



FM 23-10 



e. Stop, look, and listen often. 

f. Move during disturbances such as gunfire, explosions, aircraft 
noise, wind, or anything that will distract the enemy's attention or conceal 
the team's movement. 

4-8. INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES 

The individual movement techniques used by the sniper team are designed 
to allow movement without being detected. These movement techniques 
are sniper low crawl, medium crawl, high crawl, hand-and-knees crawl, 
and walking. 

a. Sniper Low Crawl. The sniper low crawl (Figure 4-3) is used when 
concealment is extremely limited, when close to the enemy, or when 
occupying a firing position. 




PULL WITH FINGERS 
HOLD WEAPON BY SLING 



LEGS TOGETHER 
PUSH WITH TOES 



Figure 4-3. Sniper low crawl. 

b. Medium Crawl. The medium crawl (Figure 4-4) is used when 
concealment is limited and the team needs to move faster-than the sniper 
low crawl allows. The medium crawl is similar to the infantryman's 
low crawl. 

c. High Crawl. The high crawl (Figure 4-5) is used when 
concealment is limited but high enough to allow the sniper to raise his 
body off the ground. The high crawl is similar to the infantry high crawl. 



4-8 



FM 23-10 



■ LIE FLAT ON GROUND 

■ LEGS SPREAD 

■ PUSH WITH LEGS 












■ PULL WITH ARMS 
}» ■ HOLD WEAPON BY SLING 





Figure 4-4. Medium crawl. 









jglk 




Xfl^^g&N^BaS^^y 


^ifcSS'fl^JP-"'- 








^£yj|^_» XbbiI^PKSi 


j ■ BODY RAISED OFF THE GROUND 
■ CRADLE WEAPON IN ARMS 


■ SUPPORT BODY WITH ELB 

■ MOVE ON ELBOWS AND Kl 


OWS AND KNEES 
MEES 



Figure 4-5. High crawl. 



4-9 



FM 23-10 



d. Hand-and-knees Crawl. The hand-and-knees crawl (Figure 4-6) 
is used when some concealment is available and the sniper team needs to 
move faster than the medium crawl. 







SSSSyf 




rfTy^l 






253 ■ BODY SUPPORTED 
j- BY KNEES AND HAND 


11 'nnHfjC 


5*WsflW^»*H( « . 




<P^ ■ WEAPON CARRIED IN 
H**u OTHER HAND 

— "**■ SCOPE IN ARMPIT 



Figure 4-6. Hand-and-knees crawl. 

e. Walking. Walking (Figure 4-7) is used when there is good 
concealment, it is not likely the enemy is close, and speed is required. 




I CROUCH WITH BODY BENT 
FORWARD AND KNEES BENT 
WEAPON IN UNE WfTH BODY 
MUZZLE POINTED DOWN 



Figure 4-7. Walking. 



4-10 



FM 23-10 

4-9. SNIPER TEAM MOVEMENT AND NAVIGATION 

Due to lack of personnel and firepower, the sniper team cannot afford 
detection by the enemy nor can it successfully fight the enemy in sustained 
engagements. 

a. When possible, the sniper team should be attached to a security 
element (squad/platoon). The security element allows the team to reach 
its area of operations quicker and safer than the team operating alone. 
Plus, the security element provides the team a reaction force should the 
team be detected. Snipers use the following guidelines when attached to 
a security element: 

(1) The security element leader is in charge of the team while it is 
attached to the element. 

(2) The sniper team always appears as an integral part of the element. 

(3) The sniper team wears the same uniform as the element members. 

(4) The sniper team maintains proper intends and positions in 
all formations. 

(5) The sniper weapon system is carried in line and close to the body, 
hiding its outline and barrel length. 

(6) All equipment that is unique to sniper teams is concealed from 
view (optics, ghillie suits, and so forth). 

b. Once in the area of operation, the sniper team separates from the 
security element and operates alone. Two examples of a sniper team 
separating from security elements are as follows: 

(1) The security element provides security while the team prepares 
for operation. 

(a) The team dons the ghillie suits and camouflages itself and its 
equipment (if mission requires). 

(b) The team ensures all equipment is secure and caches any 
nonessential equipment (if mission requires). 

(c) Once the team is prepared, it assumes a concealed position, and 
the security element departs the area. 

(d) Once the security element has departed, the team waits in 
position long enough to ensure neither itself nor the security element has 
been compromised. Then, the team moves to its tentative position. 

(2) The security element conducts a short security halt at the separation 
point. The sniper team halts, ensuring they have good available concealment 
and know each other's location. The security element then proceeds, leaving 
the sniper team in place. The sniper team remains in position until the 
security element is clear of the area. The team then organizes itself as 



4-11 



FM 23-10 

required by the mission and moves on to its tentative position. This type 
of separation also works well in MOUT situations. 

c. When selecting routes, the sniper team must remember its 
strengths and weaknesses. The following guidelines should be used when 
selecting routes: 

(1) Avoid known enemy positions and obstacles. 

(2) Seek terrain that offers the best cover and concealment. 

(3) Take advantage of difficult terrain (swamps, dense woods, and 
so forth). 

(4) Do not use trails, roads, or footpaths. 

(5) Avoid built-up or populated areas. 

(6) Avoid areas of heavy enemy guerrilla activity. 

d. When the sniper team moves, it must always assume its area is 
under enemy observation. Because of this and the size of the team with 
the small amount of firepower it has, the team uses only one type of 
formation-the sniper movement formation. Characteristics of the 
formation are as follows: 

(1) The observer is the point man; the sniper follows. 

(2) The observer's sector of security is 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock; the 
sniper's sector of security is 9 o'clock to 3 o'clock (overlapping). 

(3) Visual contact must be maintained even when lying on the ground. 

(4) An interval of no more than 20 meters is maintained. 

(5) The sniper reacts to the point man's actions. 

(6) The team leader designates the movement techniques and 
routes used. 

(7) The team leader designates rally points. 

e. A sniper team must never become decisively engaged with 
the enemy. The team must rehearse immediate action drills to the extent 
that they become a natural and immediate reaction should it make 
unexpected contact with the enemy. Examples of such actions are 
as follows: 

(1) Visual contact. If the sniper team sees the enemy and the enemy 
does not see the team, it freezes. If the team has time, it will do 
the following 

(a) Assume the best covered and concealed position. 

(b) Remain in position until the enemy has passed. 

NOTE: The team will not initiate contact. 
4-12 



FM 23-10 



(2) Ambush. In an ambush, the sniper team's objective is to break 
contact immediately. One example of this involves performing 
the following 

(a) The observer delivers rapid fire on the enemy. 

(b) The sniper throws smoke grenades between the observer and 
the enemy. 

(c) The sniper delivers well-aimed shots at the most threatening 
targets until smoke covers the area. 

(d) The observer then throws fragmentation grenades and withdraws 
toward the sniper, ensuring he does not mask the sniper's fire. 

(e) The team moves to a location where the enemy cannot observe 
or place direct fire on it. 

(f) If contact cannot be broken, the sniper calls for indirect fires or a 
security element (if attached). 

(g) If team members get separated, they should return to the 
next-to-last designated en route rally point. 

(3) Indirect fire. When reacting to indirect fires, the team must move 
out of the area as quickly as possible. This sudden movement can result 
in the team's exact location and direction being pinpointed. Therefore, the 
team must not only react to indirect fire but also take actions to conceal 
its movement once it is out of the impact area. 

(a) The team leader moves the team out of the impact area using the 
quickest route by giving the direction and distance (clock method). 

(b) Team members move out of the impact area the designated 
distance and direction. 

(c) The team leader then moves the team farther away from the 
impact area by using the most direct concealed route. They continue the 
mission using an alternate route. 

(d) If team members get separated, they should return to the 
next-to-last designated en route rally point. 

(4) Air attack. 

(a) Team members assume the best available covered and concealed 
positions. 

(b) Between passes of aircraft, team members move to positions that 
offer better cover and concealment. 

(c) The team does not engage the aircraft. 

(d) Team members remain in positions until attacking aircraft depart. 

(e) If team members get separated, they return to the next-to-last 
designated en route rally point. 



4-13 



FM 23-10 



f. To aid the sniper team in navigation, the team should memorize 
the route by studying maps, aerial photos, or sketches. The team notes 
distinctive features (hills, streams, roads) and its location in relation to 
the route. It plans an alternate route in case the primary route cannot 
be used. It plans offsets to circumvent known obstacles to movement. 
The team uses terrain countdown, which involves memorizing terrain 
features from the start point to the objective, to maintain the route. 
During the mission, the sniper team mentally counts each terrain feature, 
thus ensuring it maintains the proper route. 

g. The sniper team maintains orientation at all times. As it moves, 
it observes the terrain carefully and mentally checks off the distinctive 
features noted in the planning and study of the route. Many aids are 
available to ensure orientation. The following are examples: 

(1) The location and direction of flow of principal streams. 

(2) Hills, valleys, roads, and other peculiar terrain features. 

(3) Railroad tracks, power lines, and other man-made objects. 

Section III 

SELECTION, OCCUPATION, AND CONSTRUCTION 

OF SNIPER POSITIONS 

Selecting the location for a position is one of the most important tasks a 
sniper team accomplishes during the mission planning phase of 
an operation. After selecting the location, the team also determines how 
it will move into the area to locate and occupy the final position. 

4-10. SELECTION 

Upon receiving a mission, the sniper team locates the target area and then 
determines the best location for a tentative position by using one or more 
of the following sources of information: topographic maps, aerial 
photographs, visual reconnaissance before the mission, and information 
gained from units operating in the area. 

a. The sniper team ensures the position provides an optimum 
balance between the following considerations: 

• Maximum fields of fire and observation of the target area. 

• Concealment from enemy observation. 

• Covered routes into and out of the position. 

• Located no closer than 300 meters from the target area. 

• A natural or man-made obstacle between the position and the 
target area. 



4-14 



FM 23-10 

b. A sniper team must remember that a position that appears to be 
in an ideal location may also appear that way to the enemy. Therefore, 
the team avoids choosing locations that are— 

• On a point or crest of prominent terrain features. 

• Close to isolated objects. 

• At bends or ends of roads, trails, or streams. 

• In populated areas, unless it is required. 

c. The sniper team must use its imagination and ingenuity in 
choosing a good location for the given mission. The team chooses a 
location that not only allows the team to be effective but also must appear 
to the enemy to be the least likely place for a team position. The following 
are examples of such positions: 

• Under logs in a deadfall area. 

• Tunnels bored from one side of a knoll to the other. 

• Swamps. 

• Deep shadows. 

• Inside rubble piles. 

4-11. OCCUPATION 

During the mission planning phase, the sniper also selects an objective 
rally point. From this point, the sniper team reconnoiters the tentative 
position to determine the exact location of its final position. The location 
of the ORP should provide cover and concealment from enemy fire and 
observation, be located as close to the selected area as possible, and have 
good routes into and out of the selected area. 

a. From the ORP, the team moves toward to a location that allows the 
team to view the tentative position area (Figure 4-8 page 4-16). One member 
remains in this location to cover the other member who reconnoiters the 
area to locate a final position. Once a suitable location has been found, 
the covering team member moves to the position. While conducting the 
reconnaissance or moving to the position, the team— 

• Moves slowly and deliberately, using the sniper low crawl. 

• Avoids unnecessary movement of trees, bushes, and grass. 

• Avoids making any noises. 

• Stays in the shadows, if there are any. 

• Stops, looks, and listens every few feet. 

b. When the sniper team arrives at the firing position, it— 

• Conducts a detailed search of the target area. 

• Starts construction of the firing position, if required. 



4-15 



FM 23-10 



Organizes equipment so that it is easily accessible. 
Establishes a system of observing eating resting, and latrine calls. 




Figure 4-8. Tentative position areas. 

4-12. CONSTRUCTION 

A sniper mission always requires the team to occupy some type of position. 
These positions can range from a hasty position, which a team may use for 
a few hours, to a more permanent position, which the team could occupy, 
for a few days. The team should always plan to build its position during 
limited visibility. 

a. Sniper Position Considerations. Whether a sniper team is in a 
position for a few minutes or a few days, the basic considerations in. 
choosing a type of position remain the same. 

(1) Location: 

(a) Type of terrain and soil. Digging and boring of tunnels can be very 
difficult in hard soil or in fine, loose sand. The team takes advantage of 
what the terrain offers (gullies, holes, hollow tree stumps, and so forth). 

(b) Enemy location and capabilities. Enemy patrols in the area may 
be close enough to the position to hear any noises that may accidentally 
be made during any construction. The team also considers the enemy's 
night vision and detection capabilities. 



4-16 



FM 23-10 



(2) Time: 

(a) Amount of time to be occupied. If the sniper team's mission 
requires it to be in position for a long time, the team constructs a position 
that provides more survivability. This allows the team to operate more 
effectively for a longer time. 

(b) Time required for construction. The time required to build a 
position must be considered, especially during the mission planning phase. 

(3| Personnel and equipment: 

(a) Equipment needed for construction. The team plans for the use of 
any extra equipment needed for construction (bow saws, picks, axes, and 
so forth). 

(b) Personnel needed for construction. Coordination is made if the 
position requires more personnel to build it or a security element to 
secure the area during construction. 

b. Construction Techniques. Belly and semipermanent hide 
positions can be constructed of stone, brick, wood, or turf. Regardless of 
material, every effort is made to bulletproof the front of the hide position. 
The team can use the following techniques: 

• Pack protective jackets around the loophole areas. 

• Emplace an angled armor plate with a loophole cut into it behind 
the hide loophole. 

• Sandbag the loopholes from the inside. 

(1) Pit. Hide construction begins with the pit since it protects the 
sniper team. All excavated dirt is removed (placed in sandbags, taken 
away on a poncho, and so forth) and hidden (plowed fields, under a log, 
or away from the hide site). 

(2) Overhead cover. In a semipermanent hide position, logs should 
be used as the base of the roof. The sniper team places a dust cover over 
the base (such as a poncho, layers of empty sandbags, or canvas), a layer 
of dirt, and a layer of gravel, if available. The team spreads another layer 
of dirt, and then adds camouflage. Due to the various materials, the roof 
is difficult to conceal if not countersunk. 

(3) Entrance. To prevent detection, the sniper team should construct 
an entrance door sturdy enough to bear a man s weight. 

(4) Loopholes. The construction of loopholes (Figure 4-9, page 4-18) 
requires care and practice to ensure they afford adequate fields of fire. 
Loopholes must be camouflaged by foliage or other material that blends 
with or is natural to the surroundings. 

(5) Approaches. It is vital that the natural appearance of the ground 
remains unaltered and camouflage blends with the surroundings. 



4-17 



FM 23-10 



Construction time is wasted if the enemy observes a team entering the 
hide; therefore, approached must be concealed. Teams try to enter the 
hide during darkness, keeping movement to a minimum and adhering to 
trail discipline. In built-up areas, a secure and quiet approach is needed. 
Teams must avoid drawing attention to the mission and carefully 
plan movement. A possible ploy is to use a house search with sniper gear 
hidden among other gear. Sewers may be used for movement also. 




Figure 4-9. Loopholes in hide position. 

c. Hasty Position. A hasty position is used when the sniper team is 
in a position for a short time and cannot construct a position due to the 
location of the enemy, or immediately assumes a position. The hasty 
position is characterized by the following 

(1) Advantages: 

(a) Requires no construction The sniper team uses what is available 
for cover and concealment. 

(b) Can be occupied in a short time. As soon as a suitable position is 
found, the team need only prepare loopholes by moving small amounts of 
vegetation or by simply backing a few feet away from the vegetation that 
is already thereto conceal the weapon's muzzle blast. 

(2) Disadvantages: 

(a) Affords no freedom of movement. Any movement that is not slow 
and deliberate may result in the team being compromised. 



4-18 



FM 23-10 



(b) Restricts observation of large areas. This type of position is 
normally used to observe a specific target area (intersection, passage, 
or crossing). 

(c) Offers no protection from direct or indirect fires. 

(d) Relies heavily on personal camouflage. The team's only protection 
against detection is personal camouflage and the ability to use the 
available terrain. 

(3) Occupation time. The team should not remain in this type of 
position longer than eight hours. 

d. Expedient Position. When a sniper team is required to remain in 
position for a longer time than the hasty position can provide, an 
expedient position (Figure 4-10) should be constructed. The expedient 
position lowers the sniper's silhouette as low to the ground as possible, 
but it still allows him to fire and observe effectively. The expedient 
position is characterized by the following 

(lj Advantages: 

(a) Requires little construction. This position is constructed by digging 
a hole in the ground just large enough for the team and its equipment. 
Soil dug from this position can be placed in sandbags and used for building 
firing platforms. 

(b) Conceals most of the body and equipment. The optics, rifles, and 
heads of the sniper team are the only items that are above ground level in 
this position. 

(c) Provides some protection from direct fires due to its lower silhouette. 




Figure 4-10. Expedient position. 



4-19 



FM 23-10 

(2) Disadvantages: 

(a) Affords little freedom of movement. The team has more freedom 
of movement in this position than in the hasty position. Team members 
can lower their heads below ground level slowly to ensure a target 
indicator is not produced. 

(b) Allows little protection from indirect fires. This position does not 
protect the team from shrapnel and debris falling into the position. 

(c) Exposes the head, weapons, and optics. The team must rely 
heavily on the camouflaging of these exposed areas. 

(3) Construction time: 1 to 3 hours (depending on the situation). 

(4) Occupation time: 6 to 12 hours. 

e. Belly Hide. The belly hide (Figure 4-11) is similar to the expedient 
position, but it has overhead cover that not only protects the team from 
the effects of indirect fires but also allows more freedom of movement. 
This position can be dugout under a tree, a rock, or any available object 
that provides overhead protection and a concealed entrance and exit. 
The belly hide is characterized by the following 

(1) Advantages: 

(a) Allows some freedom of movement. The darkened area inside this 
position allows the team to move freely. The team must remember to 
cover the entrance/exit door so outside light does not silhouette the team 
inside the position or give the position away. 

(b) Conceals all but the rifle barrel. All equipment is inside the 
position except the rifle barrels. Depending on the room available to 
construct the position, the rifle barrels may also be inside. 

(c) Provides protection from direct and indirect fires. The team should 
try to choose a position that has an object that will provide good overhead 
protection (rock tracked vehicle, rubble pile, and so forth), or prepare it 
in the same manner as overhead cover for other infantry positions. 

(2) Disadvantages: 

(a) Requires extra construction time. 

(b) Requires extra materials and tools. Construction of overhead 
cover requires saws or axes, waterproof material, and so forth. 

(c) Has limited space. The sniper team will have to lay in the belly 
hide without a lot of variation in body position due to limited space and 
design of the position. 

(3) Construction time: 4 to 6 hours. 

(4) Occupation time: 12 to 48 hours. 



4-20 



FM 23-10 



"Vttsr 




LOOPHOLES 

4 TO 6 INCHES 

(CONCEALMENT NOT SHOWN) 



Figure 4-11. Belly hide position. 

f. Semipermanent Hide. The semipermanent hide (Figure 4-12, 
page 4-22) is used mostly in defensive situations. This position requires 
additional equipment ana personnel to construct. However, it allows sniper 
teams to remain in place for extended periods or to be relieved in place by 
other sniper teams. Like the belly hide, this position can be constructed by 
tunneling through a knoll or under natural objects already in place. 
The semipermanent hide is characterized by the following 



4-21 



FM 23-10 



(1) Advantages: 

(a) Offers total freedom of movement inside the position. The team 
members can move about freely. They can stand, sit, or even lie down. 

(b) Protects against direct and indirect fires. The sniper team should 
look for the same items as mentioned in the belly hide. 

(c) Is completely concealed. Loopholes are the only part of the 
position that can be detected. They allow for the smallest exposure 
possible; yet they still allow the sniper and observer to view the target area. 
These loopholes should have a large diameter (10 to 14 inches) in the interior 
of the position and taper down to a smaller diameter (4 to 8 inches) on the 
outside of the position. A position may have more than two sets of loopholes 
if needed to cover large areas. The entrance /exit to the position must be 
covered to prevent light from entering and highlighting the loopholes. 
Loopholes that are not in use should be covered from the inside with a piece 
of canvas or suitable material. 

(d) Is easily maintained for extended periods. This position allows the 
team to operate effectively for a longer period. 

(2) Disadvantages: 

(a) Requires extra personnel and tools to construct. This position 
requires extensive work and extra tools. It should not be constructed near 
the enemy. It should be constructed during darkness and be completed 
before dawn. 




Figure 4-12. Semipermanent hide position. 



4-22 



FM 23-10 



(b) Increases risk of detection. Using a position for several days or 
having teams relieve each other in a position always increases the risk 
of detection. 

(3) Construction time: 4 to 6 hours (4 personnel). 

(4) Occupation time: 48 hours plus (relieved by other teams). 

g. Routines in Sniper Team positions. Although the construction of 
positions may differ, the routines while in position are the same. 
The sniper and the observer should have a good firing platform. This gives 
the sniper a stable platform for the sniper weapon and the observer a 
platform for the optics. When rotating observation duties, the sniper 
weapon should remain in place, and the optics are handed from one 
member to the other. Sniper data book, observation logs, range cards, 
and the radio should be placed between the team where both members 
have easy access to them. A system of resting, eating, and latrine calls 
must be arranged between the team. All latrine calls should be done 
during darkness, if possible. A hole should be dug to conceal any traces 
of latrme calls. 

4-13. POSITIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN 

Positions in urban terrain are quite different than positions in the field. 
The sniper team normally has several places to choose. These can range 
from inside attics to street-level positions in basements. This type of 
terrain is ideal for a sniper, and a sniper team can stop an enemy's advance 
through its area of responsibility. 

a. When constructing an urban position, the sniper team must be 
aware of the outside appearance of the structure. Shooting through 
loopholes in barricaded windows is preferred; the team must make sure 
all other windows are also barricaded. Building loopholes in other 
windows also provides more positions to engage targets. When building 
loopholes, the team should make them different shapes (not perfect 
squares or circles). Dummy loopholes also confuse the enemy. Positions in 
attics are also effective. The team removes the shingles and cuts out 
loopholes in the roof; however, they must make sure there are other 
shingles missing from the roof so the firing position loophole is 
not obvious. 

(1) The sniper team should not locate the position against 
contrasting background or in prominent buildings that automatically 
draw attention. It must stay in the shadows while moving, observing, and 
engaging targets. 



4-23 



FM 23-10 



(2) The team must never fire close to a loophole. It should always 
back away from the hole as far as possible to hide the muzzle flash and to 
scatter the sound of the weapon when it fires. The snipers may be located 
in a different room than the loophole; however, they can make a hole 
through a wall to connect the rooms and fire from inside one room. 
The team must not fire continually from one position. (More than one 
position should be constructed if time and situation permit.) 
When constructing other positions, the team makes sure the target area 
can be observed. Sniper team positions should never be used hy any 
personnel other than a sniper team. 

b. Common sense and imagination are the sniper team's only 
limitation in the construction or urban hide positions. Urban hide 
positions that can be used are the room hide, crawl space hide, and 
rafter hide. The team constructs and occupies one of these positions or 
a variation thereof. 



WARNING 
WHEN MOVING THROUGH SEWERS, TEAMS MUST BE 
ALERT FOR BOOBY TRAPS AND POISONOUS GASES. 



(1) Room hide position. In a room hide position, the sniper team 
uses an existing room and fires through a window or loophole (Figure 
4-13). Weapon support may be achieved through the use of existing 
furniture-tnat is, desks or tables. When selecting a position, teams 
must notice both front and back window positions. To avoid, 
silhouetting, they may need to use a backdrop such as a dark-colored 
blanket, canvas, carpet, and a screen. Screens (common screening 
material) are important since they allow the sniper teams maximum 
observation and deny observation by the enemy. They must not. 
remove curtains; however, they can open windows or remove panes of 
glass. Remember, teams can randomly remove panes in other windows 
so the position is not obvious. 

(2) Crawl space hide position. The sniper team builds a crawl space 
hide position in the space between floors in multistory buildings 
(Figure 4-14). Loopholes are difficult to construct, but a damaged 
building helps considerably. Escape routes can be holes knocked into the 
floor or ceiling. Carpet or furniture placed over escape holes or replaced 
ceiling tiles will conceal them until needed. 



4-24 



FM 23-10 




Figure 4-13. Room hide position. 



CUTAWAY VIEW 
(CRAWL SPACE) 



ENTRY-EXIT 




Figure 4-14. Crawl space hide position. 



4-25 



FM 23-10 



(3) Rafter hide position. The sniper team constructs a rafter hide 
position in the attic of an A-frame- type building. These buildings normally 
have shingled roofs (A and B, Figure 4-15). Firing from inside the attic 
around a chimney or other structure helps prevent enemy observation 
and fire. 



SNIPER TEAM POSITION 
LOOPHOLES ARE HIDDEN 
AMONG RANDOMLY TORN 
SHINGLES. 




Figure 4-1 5. Rafter hide positions. 

c. Sniper teams use the technique best suited for the urban 
hide position. 

(1) The second floor of a building is usually the best location for 
the position. It presents minimal dead space but provides the team more 
protection since passersby cannot easily spot it. 

(2) Normally, a window is the best viewing aperture/loophole. 



4-26 



FM 23-10 

(a) If the window is dirty, do not clean it for better viewing. 

(b) If curtains are prevalent in the area, do not remove those in 
the position. Lace or net-type curtains can be seen through from the 
inside, but they are difficult to see through from the outside. 

(c) If strong winds blow the curtains open, staple, tack, or 
weight them. 

(d) Firing a round through a curtain has little effect on accuracy 
however, ensure the muzzle is far enough away to avoid muzzle blast. 

(e) When area routine indicates open curtains, follow suit. Set up 
well away from the loophole; however, ensure effective coverage of the 
assigned target area. 

(3) Firing through glass should be avoided since more than one shot 
may be required. The team considers the following options: 

(a) Break or open several windows throughout the position before 
occupation. This can be done during the reconnaissance phase of the 
operation; however, avoid drawing attention to the area. 

(b) Remove or replace panes of glass with plastic. 

(4) Other loopholes /viewing apertures are nearly unlimited. 

• Battle damage. 

• Drilled holes (hand drill). 

• Brick removal. 

• Loose boards/derelict houses. 

(5) Positions can also beset up in attics or between the ceiling and roof. 
(See rafter hide positions.) 

• Gable ends close to the eaves (shadow adding to concealment). 

• Battle damage to gables and or roof. 

• ' Loose or removed tiles, shingles, or slates. 
• ; Skylights. 

(6) The sniper makes sure the bullet clears the loophole. The muzzle 
must be far enough from the loophole to ensure the bullet's path is not in 
line with the bottom of the loophole. 

(7) Front drops, usually netting, may have to be changed (if the 
situation permits) from dark to light colors at BMNT/EENT due to 
sunlight or lack of sunlight into the position. 

(8) If the site is not multiroomed, partitions can be made by 
hanging blankets or nets to separate the operating area from the 
rest/administrative area. 



4-27 



FM 23-10 



(9) If sandbags are required, they can be filled and carried inside of 
rucksacks or can be filled in the basement, depending on the 
situation/location of the position site. 

(10) Always plan an escape route that leads to the objective 
rally point. When forced to vacate the position, the team meets the 
security element at the ORP. Normally, the team will not be able to leave 
from the same point at which it gained access; therefore, a separate escape 
point may be required in emergency situations. The team must consider 
windows (other than the viewing apertures); anchored ropes to climb 
down buildings, or a small, preset explosive charge situated on a wall or 
floor for access into adjoining rooms, buildings, or the outside. 

(11) The type of uniform or camouflage to be worn by the team will 
be dictated by the situation, how they are employed, and area of operation. 
The following applies: 

(a) Most often, the BDU and required equipment are worn. 

(b) Urban-camouflaged uniforms can be made or purchased. 
Urban areas vary in color (mostly gray [cinder block]; red [brick]; white 
[marble]; black [granite]; or stucco, clay, or wood). Regardless of area 
color, uniforms should include angular-line patterns. 

(c) When necessary, most woodland-patterned BDUs can be worn 
inside out as they are a gray or green-gray color underneath. 

(d) Soft-soled shoes or boots are the preferred footwear in the 
urban environment. 

(e) Civilian clothing can be worn (native /host country populace). 

(f) Tradesmen's or construction worker's uniforms and accessories 
can be used. 

Section IV 
OBSERVATION 

Throughout history, battles have been won and nations conquered based 
on an accurate accounting and description of the opposing forces strength, 
equipment, and location. As the sniper team performs the secondary 
mission of collecting and reporting battlefield intelligence, the 
commander can act, rather than react. The purpose of observation is to 
gather facts and to provide information for a specific intent. Observation 
uses all of the sniper team's five senses but often depends on sight 
and hearing. For example, the sniper team is issued a FIR or OIR for a 
specific mission. Information gathered by the sniper team is reported, 
analyzed, and processed into intelligence reports. The sniper team's 
success depends upon its powers of observation. In addition to the 
sniperscope, the sniper team has an observation telescope, binoculars, 



4-28 



FM 23-10 



night vision sight, and night vision goggles to enhance its ability to observe 
and engage targets. Team members must relieve each other when using 
this equipment since prolonged use can cause eye fatigue, greatly 
reducing the effectiveness of observation. Team members rotate periods 
of observation. During daylight, observation should be limited to 
10 minutes followed by a 10-minute rest. When using night vision 
devices, the observer should limit his initial period of viewing to 
10 minutes followed by a 10-minute rest. After several periods of viewing, 
he can extend the viewing period to 15 minutes and then a 15-minute rest. 

4-14. HASTY AND DETAILED SEARCHES 

While observing a target area, the sniper team alternately conducts two 
types of visual searches: hasty and detailed. 

a. A hasty search is the first phase of observing a target area. 
The observer conducts a hasty search immediately after the team occupies 
the firing position. A hasty search consists of quick glances with 
binoculars at specific points, terrain features, or other areas that could 
conceal the enemy. The observer views the area closest to the team's 
position first since it could pose the most immediate threat. The observer 
then searches farther out until the entire target area has been searched. 
When the observer sees or suspects a target, he uses an M49 observation 
telescope for a detailed view of the target area. The telescope should not 
be used to search the area because its narrow field of view would take much 
longer to cover an area; plus, its stronger magnification can cause eye 
fatigue sooner than the binoculars. 

b. After a hasty search has been completed, the observer then 
conducts a detailed search of the area. A detailed search is a closer, more 
thorough search of the target area, using 180-degree area or sweeps, 
50 meters in depth, and overlapping each previous sweep at least 10 meters 
to ensure the entire area has Tbeen observed (Figure 4-16, page 4-30). 
Like the hasty search, the observer begins by searching the area closest to 
the sniper team position. 

c. This cycle of a hasty search followed by a detailed search should be 
repeated three or four times. This allows the sniper team to become 
accustomed to the area; plus, the team will look closer at various points 
with each consecutive pass over the area. After the initial searches, the 
observer should view the area, using a combination of both hasty and 
detailed searches. While the observer conducts the initial searches of the 
area, the sniper should record prominent features, reference points, and 
distances on a range card. The team members should alternate the task 
of observing the area about every 30 minutes. 



4-29 



FM 23-10 




FIRER 



SNIPER TEAM 



Figure 4-16. Detailed search. 

4-15. ELEMENTS OF OBSERVATION 

The four elements in the process of observation include awareness, 
understanding, recording, and response. Each of these elements may be 
accomplished as a separate processor accomplished at the same time. 

a. Awareness. Awareness is being consciously attuned to a specific fact. 

A sniper team must always be aware of the surroundings and take nothing, 
for granted. The team also considers certain elements that influence and 
distort awareness. 

(1) An object's size and shape can be misinterpreted if viewed 
incompletely or inaccurately. 

(2) Distractions degrade the quality of observations. 

(3) Active participation or degree of interest can diminish toward 
the event. 

(4) Physical abilities (five senses) have limitations. 

(5) Environmental changes affect accuracy. 

(6) Imagination may cause possible exaggerations or inaccuracy. 

b. Understanding. Understanding is derived from education, 
training, practice, and experience. It enhances the sniper team's 



4-30 



FM 23-10 



knowledge about what should be observed, broadens its ability to view and 
consider all aspects, and aids in its evaluation of information. 

c. Recording. Recording is the ability to save and recall what 
was observed. Usually, the sniper team has mechanical aids, such as 
writing utensils, sniper data book, sketch kits, tape recorders, and 
cameras, to support the recording of events; however, the most accessible 
method is memory. The ability to record, retain, and recall depends on 
the team's mental capacity (and alertness) and ability to recognize what 
is essential to record. Added factors that affect recording include 

(1) The amount of training and practice in observation. 

(2) Skill gained through experience. 

(3) Similarity of previous incidents. 

(4) Time interval between observing and recording. 

(5) The ability to understand or convey messages through oral or 
other communications. 

d. Response. Response is the sniper team's action toward information. 
It may be as simple as recording events in a sniper data book, making a 
communications call, or firing a well-aimed shot. 

NOTE: See Chapter 9 for discussion on the keep-in-memory 
(KIM) game. 

4-16. TWILIGHT TECHNIQUES 

Twilight induces a false sense of security, and the sniper team must be 
extremely cautious. The enemy is also prone to carelessness and more 
likely to expose himself at twilight. During twilight, snipers should be 
alert to OP locations for future reference. The MM telescope reticle is 
still visible and capable of accurate fire 30 minutes before BMNT and 
30 minutes after EENT. 

4-17. NIGHT TECHNIQUES 

Without night vision devices, the sniper team must depend upon eyesight. 
Regardless of night brightness, the numan eye cannot function at night 
with daylight precision. For maximum effectiveness, the sniper team 
must apply the following principles of night vision: 

a. Night Adaptation. The sniper team should wear sunglasses or 
red-lensed goggles in lighted areas before departing on a mission. 
After departure, the team makes a darkness adaptation and listening halt 
for 30 minutes. 

b. Off-Center Vision. In dim light, an object under direct focus blurs, 
appears to change, and sometimes fades out entirely. However, when the 



4-31 



FM 23-10 



eyes are focused at different points, about 5 to 10 degrees away from an 
object, peripheral vision provides a true picture. This allows the 
light-sensitive portion of the eye, that not used during the day, to be used, 
c. Factors Affecting Night Vision. The sniper team has control over 
the following night vision factors: 

(1) Lack of vitamin A impairs night vision. However, an overdose 
of vitamin A will not improve night vision capability. 

(2) Colds, fatigue, narcotics, headaches, smoking, and alcohol reduce 
night vision. 

(3) Exposure to bright light degrades night vision and requires a 
readaption to darkness. 

4-18. ILLUMINATION AIDS 

The sniper team may occasionally have artificial illumination for 
observing and firing. Examples are artillery illumination fire, campfires, 
or lighted buildings. 

a. Artillery Illumination Fire. The M301A2 illuminating cartridge 
provides 50,000 candlepower. 

b. Campfires. Poorly disciplined enemy soldiers may use campfires, 
or fires may be created by battlefield damage. These opportunities give 
the sniper enough illumination for aiming. 

c. Lighted Buildings. The sniper can use lighted buildings to 
eliminate occupants of the building or personnel in the immediate area 
of the light source. 

Section V 
TARGET DETECTION AND SELECTION 

Recording the type and location of targets in the area helps the sniper 
team to determine engageable targets. The sniper team must select key 
targets that will do the greatest harm to the enemy in a given situation. 
It must also consider the use of indirect fire on targets. Some targets, due 
to their size or location, may be better engaged with indirect fire. 

4-19. TARGET INDEXING 

To index targets, the sniper team uses the prepared range card for a 
reference since it can greatly reduce the engagement time. When indexing a 
target to the sniper, the observer locates a prominent terrain feature near 
the target. He indicates this feature and any other information to the 
sniper to assist in finding the target. Information between team members 
varies with the situation.The observer may sound like an FO giving a call 
for fire to an FDC depending on the condition of the battlefield and the 
total number of possible targets from which to choose. 



4-32 



FM 23-10 

a. Purpose. The sniper team indexes targets for the following reasons: 

(1) Sniper teams may occupy an FFP in advance of an attack to locate, 
index, and record target locations; and to decide on the priority of targets. 

(2) Indiscriminate firing may alert more valuable and closer 
enemy targets. 

(3) Engagement of a distant target may result in disclosure of the FFP 
to a closer enemy. 

(4) A system is needed to remember location if several targets are 
sighted at the same time. 

b. Considerations. The sniper team must consider the following 
factors when indexing targets: 

(1) Exposure times. Moving targets may expose themselves for only 
a short time The sniper team must note the point of disappearance of 
each target, if possible, before engagement. By doing so, the team may be 
able to take several targets under fire in rapid succession. 

(2) Number of targets. If several targets appear and disappear at the 
same time, the point of disappearance of each is hard to determine; 
therefore, sniper teams concentrate on the most important targets. 

(3) Spacing! distance between targets. The greater the distance 
between targets, the harder it is to see their movement. In such cases, the 
team should locate and engage the nearest targets. 

(4) Evacuation of aiming points. Targets that disappear behind good 
aiming points are easily recorded and remembered, targets with poor 
aiming points are easily lost. Assuming that two such targets are of equal 
value and danger, the team should engage the more dangerous aimmg 
point target first. 

c. Determination of Location of Hidden Fires. When using the 
crack-thump method, the team listens for the crack of the round and the 
thump of the weapon being fired. By using this method, the sniper can 
obtain both a direction and a distance. 

(1) Distance to firer. The time difference between the crack and the 
thump can be converted into an approximate range. A one-second lapse 
between the two is about 600 yards with most calibers; a one-half-second 
lapse is about 300 yards. 

(2) Location of firer. By observing in the direction of the thump and 
near the predetermined range, the sniper team has a good chance of seeing 
the enemy's muzzle flash or blast from subsequent shots. 

(3) LimitationsJhe crack-thump method has the following limitations 
(a) Isolating the crack and thump is difficult when many shots are 

being fired. 



4-33 



FM 23-10 



(b) Mountainous areas, tall buildings, and so forth cause echoes and 
make this method ineffective. 

d. Shot-Hole Analysis. Locating two or more shot holes in trees, 
walls, dummy heads, and so forth may make it possible to determine the 
direction of the shots. The team can use the dummy-head pencil method 
and triangulate on the enemy sniper's position. However, this method 
only works if all shots come from the same position. 

4-20. TARGET SELECTION 

Target selection may be forced upon the sniper team. A target moving 
rapidly may be lost while obtaining positive identification. The sniper 
team considers any enemy threatening its position as a high-value target. 
When selecting key targets, the team must consider the following factors: 

a. Threat to the Sniper Team. The sniper team must consider the 
danger the target presents. This can be an immediate threat, such as an 
enemy element walking upon its position, or a future threat, such as enemy 
snipers or dog tracking teams. 

b. Probability of First-Round HitThe sniper team must determine 
the chances of hitting the target with the first shot by considering 
the following: 

• Distance to the target. 

• Direction and velocity of the wind. 

• Visibility of the target area. 

• Amount of the target that is exposed. 

• Amount of time the target is exposed. 

• Speed and direction of target movement. 

c. Certainty of Target's Identity. The sniper team must be 

reasonably certain that the target it is considering is the key target. 

d. Target Effect on the Enemy. The sniper team must consider what 
effect the elimination of the target will have on the enemy's fighting ability 
It must determine that the target is the one available target that will cause 

the greatest harm to the enemy. 

e. Enemy Reaction to Sniper Fire. The sniper team must consider 
what the enemy will do once the shot has been fired. The team must be 
prepared for such actions as immediate suppression by indirect fires and 
enemy sweeps of the area. 

f. Effect on the Overall Mission. The sniper team must consider how 
the engagement will affect the overall mission. The mission may be one 
of intelligence gathering for a certain period. Firing will not only alert 

4-34 



FM 23-10 



the enemy to a team's presence, but it may also terminate the mission if 
the team has to move from its position as a result of the engagement. 

4-21. KEY TARGETS 

Key personnel targets can be identified by actions or mannerisms, by 
positions within formations, by rank or insignias, and or by equipment 
being worn or carried. Key targets can also include weapon systems 
and equipment. Examples of key targets areas follows: 

a. Snipers. Snipers are the number one target of a sniper team. 
The enemy sniper not only poses a threat to friendly forces, but he is also 
the natural enemy of the sniper. The fleeting nature of a sniper is reason 
enough to engage him because he may never be seen again. 

b. Dog Tracking Teams. Dog tracking teams pose a great threat to 
sniper teams and other special teams that may be working in the area. It is 
hard to fool a trained dog. When engaging a dog tracking team, the sniper 
should engage the dog's handler first. This confuses the dog, and other 
team members may not be able to control it. 

c. Scouts. Scouts are keen observers and provide valuable information 
about friendly units. This plus their ability to control indirect fires make 
them dangerous on the battlefield. Scouts must be eliminated. 

d. Officers. Officers are another key target of the sniper team. 
Losing key officers in some forces is such a major disruption to the 
operation that forces may not be able to coordinate for hours. 

e. Noncommissioned Officers. Losing NCOs not only affects the 
operation of a unit but also affects the morale of lower ranking personnel, 

f. Vehicle Commanders and Drivers. Many vehicles are rendered 
useless without a commander or driver. 

g. Communications Personnel. In some forces, only highly trained 
personnel know how to operate various types of radios. Eliminating these 
personnel can be a serious blow to the enemy's communication network. 

h. Weapon Crews. Eliminating weapon crews reduces the amount of 
fire on friendly troops. 

i. Optics on Vehicles. Personnel who are in closed vehicles are 
limited to viewing through optics. The sniper can blind a vehicle by 
damaging these optic systems. 

j. Communication and Radar Equipment. The right shot in the right place 
can completely ruin a tactically valuable radar or communication system. 
Also, only highly trained personnel may attempt to repair these systems 
in place. Eliminating these personnel may impair the enemy's ability to 
perform field repair. 



4-35 



FM 23-10 



k. Weapon Systems. Many high-technology weapons, especially 
computer-guided systems, can he rendered useless by one well-placed 
round in the guidance controller of the system. 

Section VI 
RANGE ESTIMATION 

A sniper team is required to accurately determine distance, to properly 
adjust elevation on the sniper weapon system, and to prepare 
topographical sketches or range cards. Because of this, the team has to 
be skilled in various range estimation techniques. 

4-22. FACTORS AFFECTING RANGE ESTIMATION 

Three factors affect range estimation: nature of the target, nature of the 
terrain, and light conditions. 

a. Nature of the Target. 

(1) An object of regular outline, such as a house, appears closer than 
one of irregular outline, such as a clump of trees. 

(2) A target that contrasts with its background appears to be closer 
than it actually is. 

(3) A partly exposed target appears more distant than it actually is. 

b. Nature of the Terrain. 

(1) As the observer's eye follows the contour of the terrain, he tends 
to overestimate distant targets. 

(2) Observing over smooth terrain, such as sand, water, or snow, 
causes the observer to underestimate distant targets. 

(3) Looking downhill, the target appears farther away. 

(4) Looking uphill, the target appears closer. 

c. Light Conditions. 

(1) The more clearly a target can be seen, the closer it appears. 

(2) When the sun is behind the observer, the target appears to 
be closer. 

(3) When the sun is behind the target, the target is more difficult to 
see and appears to be farther away. 

4-23. RANGE ESTIMATION METHODS 

Sniper teams use range estimation methods to determine distance 
between their position and the target. 

a. Paper-Strip Method. The paper-strip method (Figure 4-17) is 
useful when determining longer distances (1,000 meters plus). When using 
this method, the sniper places the edge of a strip of paper on the map and 



4-36 



FM 23-10 

ensures it is long enough to reach between the two points. Then he 
pencils in a tick mark on the paper at the team position and another at 
the distant location. He places the paper on the map's bar scale, located 
at the bottom center of the map, and aligns the left tick mark with the on 
the scale. Then he reads to the right to the second mark and notes the 
corresponding distance represented between the two marks. 




Meters 1000 500 



SCALE 1:50,000 

1 2 



Distance of 3 kilometers, 950 meters 



(a) 



(3,950 meters) 



J 



(b) 




Figure 4-17. Paper-strip method. 



b. 100-Meter-Unit-of-Measure Method. To use this method 
(Figure 4-18, page 4-38), the sniper team must be able to visualize a 
distance of 100 meters on the ground. For ranges up to 500 meters, the 
team determines the number of 100-meter increments between the two 
objects it wishes to measure. Beyond 500 meters, it must select a point 



4-37 



FM 23-10 

halfway to the object and determine the number of 100-meter increments 
to the halfway point, then double it to find the range to the object. 



ITHETOWER IS ABOUT 400 METERS. 
ItHE SILO IS ABOUT 800 METERS. 




Figure 4-18. 100-meter-unlt-of-measure method. 

c. Appearance-of-Object Method. This method is a means of 
determining range by the size and other characteristic details of the object. 
To use the appearance-of-object method with any degree of accuracy, the 
sniper team must be familiar with the characteristic details of the objects 
as they appear at various ranges. 

d. Bracketing Method. Using this method, the sniper team assumes 
that the target is no more than X meters but no less than Y meters away. 
An average of X and Y will be the estimate of the distance to the target. 

e. Range-Card Method. The sniper team an also use a range card 

to quickly determine ranges throughout the target area. Once a target is 
seen, the team determines where it is located on the card and then reads 
the proper range to the target. 

f . Mil-Relation Formula. The mil-relation formula is the preferred 
method of range estimation. This method uses a mil-scale reticle located 
in the M19 binoculars (Figure 4-19) or in the M3A sniperscope 
(Figure 4-20). The team must know the target size in inches or meters. 
Once the target size is known, the team then compares the target size to 
the mil-scale reticle and uses the following formula: 



4-38 



FM 23-10 

Size of target in meters x 1,000 = Range to target in meters 
Size of object in mils 

(To convert inches to meters, multiply the number of inches 
by .0254.) 




Figure 4-19. M19 mil-scale reticle. 




Figure 4-20. M3A mil-scale reticle. 



4-39 



FM 23-10 



g. Combination Method. In a combat environment, perfect 
conditions rarely exist. Therefore, only one method of range estimation 
may not be enough for the team's specific mission. Terrain with much 
dead space limits the accuracy of the 100-meter method. Poor visibility 
limits the use of the appearance-of-object method. However, by using a 
combination of two or more methods to determine an unknown range, an 
experienced sniper team should arrive at an estimated range close to the 
true range. 

4-24. LASER RANGE FINDER 

When the sniper team has access to a laser observation set, AN/GVS-5, 
the set should always be used. It can provide the sniper team range to a 
specific target with great accuracy. When aiming the laser at a specific 
target, the sniper should support it much the same as his weapon to 
ensure accuracy. If the target is too small, aiming the laser at a larger 
object near the target will suffice (that is, a building, vehicle, tree, or 
terrain feature.) 

4-25. ESTIMATION GUIDELINES 

If mirage is too heavy to distinguish the bottom of a target, it should be halved. 

EXAMPLE 

When the target is estimated to be 70 inches high, divide 
the height into one-half. Use the following mil-relation 
formula: 

35 inches x .0254 x 1,000 = Range to target in meters 
Size of target in mils 

By using this technique, estimate range to targets that are only partly 
visible. Such as: 

The normal distance from the breastbone to the top of the 
head is 19 inches. 

19 inches x .0254 x 1,000 = Range to target in meters 
Size of target in mils 

OR 

Normal height of the human head is 10 inches. 

10 inches x .0254 x 1,000 = Range to target in meters 
Size of target in mils 

4-40 



FM 23-10 



This example may prove to be of 
specific use when facing an 
enemy entrenched in bunkers or 
in dense vegetation. 

a. The sniper team should 
keep a sniper data book complete 
with measurements. 

(1) Vehicles. 

• Height of road wheels. 

• Vehicle dimensions. 

• Length of main gun tubes 
on tanks. 

• Lengths/sizes of different 
weapon systems. 

(2) Average height of human 
targets in area of operation. 

(3) Urban environment. 

• Average size of doorways. 

• Average size of windows. 

• Average width of streets 
and lanes (average width 
of a paved road in the 
United States is 10 feet). 

• Height of soda machines. 

b. As the sniper team 

develops a sniper data book, all 
measurements are converted 
into constants and computed 
with different mil readings. 
An example of this is Table 4-1, 
which has already been computed 
for immediate use. This table 
should be incorporated into the 
sniper data book 



TABLE FOR 6-FOOT MAN 


HEIGHT 
IN MILS 


STANDING 


SITTING/ 
KNEELING 


1 


2000 


1000 


1.5 


1333 


666 


2 


1000 


500 


2.5 


800 


400 


3 


666 


333 


3.5 


571 


286 


4 


500 


250 


4.5 


444 


222 


5 


400 


200 


5.5 


364 


182 


6 


333 


167 


6.5 


308 


154 


7 


286 


143 


TABLE FOR 5-FOOT 6-INCH MAN 


HEIGHT 
IN MILS 


STANDING 


SITTING/ 
KNEELING 


1 


1800 


900 


1.5 


1200 


600 


2 


900 


450 


2.5 


750 


375 


3 


600 


300 


3.5 


514 


257 


4 


450 


225 


4.5 


400 


200 


5 


360 


180 


5.5 


327 


164 


6 


300 


150 


6.5 


277 


139 



Table 4-1. Range estimation table. 



4-41 



FM 23-10 



Section VII 
INFORMATION RECORDS 

The secondary mission of the sniper team is the collection and reporting 
of information. To accomplish this, the sniper team not only needs to be 
keen observers, but it also must accurately relay the information it has 
observed. To record this information, the team uses the sniper data book, 
which contains a range card, a military sketch, and an observation log. 

4-26. RANGE CARD 

The range card represents the target area drawn as seen from above with 
annotations indicating distances throughout the target area. Information 
is recorded on DA Form 5787-R (Sniper's Range Card) (Figure 4-21). 
(A blank copy of this form is located in the back of this publication for 
local reproduction.) The range card provides the sniper team with a 
quick-range reference and a means to record target locations, since it has 
preprinted range rings on it. These cards can be divided into sectors by 
using dashed lines. This provides the team members with a quick 
reference when locating targets-for example: "The intersection in 
sector A." A range card can be prepared on any paper the team 
has available. The sniper team position and distances to prominent 
objects and terrain features are drawn on the card. There is not a set 
maximum range on the range card, because the team may also label any 
indirect fire targets on its range card. Information contained on range 
cards includes: 

a. Name, rank, SSN, and unit. 

b. Method of obtaining range. 

c. Left and right limits of engageable area. 

d. Major terrain features, roads, and structures. 

e. Ranges, elevation, and windage needed at various distances. 

f. Distances throughout the area. 

g. Temperature and wind. (Cross out previous entry whenever 
temperature, wind direction, or wind velocity changes.) 

h. Target reference points (azimuth, distance, and description). 



4-42 



FM 23-10 




DA FORM C7OT-R, JUN M 



Figure 4-21. Example of completed DA Form 5787-R. 



4-27. MILITARY SKETCH 

DA Form 5788-R (Military Sketch) is used to record information about 
a general area, terrain features, or man-made structures that are not 
shown on a map. Military sketches provide intelligence sections a 
detailed, on-the-ground view of an area or object that is otherwise 
unobtainable. These sketches not only let the viewer see the area in 
different perspectives but also provide detail such as type of fences, 
number of telephone wires, present depth of streams, and so forth. 
There are two types of military sketches as stated in FM 21-26 panoramic 
sketches and topographic sketches. Information is recorded on 
DA Form 5788-R. (A blank copy of this form is located in the back of this 
publication for local reproduction.) 

a. Panoramic. A panoramic sketch (Figure 4-22, page 4-44) is a 
representation of an area or object drawn to scale as seen from the sniper 
team's perspective. It shows details about a specific area or a 
man-made structure. Information considered in a panoramic sketch 
includes the following: 

(1) Name, rank, SSN, and unit. 

(2) Remarks section (two). 



4-43 



FM 23-10 



3) Sketch name. 

4) Grid coordinates of sniper team's position. 

(5) Weather. 

(6) Magnetic azimuth through the center of sketch. 

7) Sketch number and scale of sketch. 

8) Date and time. 



2. 



MILITARY SKETCH 



„ REMARKS: 

D « tow. cute - 

BansowT-HeM. 
«.»• IS 25 fir 
to»il>6'2ofTTAiA. 

©l%A6 pO<-£ 

mBTAl- AN»Sfi 
40 FT TAU.. 

6u>g. ts/riApea 
u)ooo. HMiunly 

ONE fHTRAHCe 
AND % iOM/OOulfi. 




ftM.*" 6 



REMARKS: 
<0/V« AUPlOFT 

WW**** 
in fk&it. rw«e 

mixsntiKCLe 

UROUHP CIMS- 

Room urrtl A 
vooccp Pfiopoep 



SKETCH NAME: 

GRID nnnaniMATF- ALaouStil 

WFATMFR- CtfttR 7P* 



NAME: pee SoHhl 
RANK: £ + 

DATE/TIME: 



DAFOfWf7M-H,JUNM 



Figure 4-22. Example of completed DA Form 5788-R 
for panoramic sketch. 

b. Topographic Sketch. A topographic sketch (Figure 4-23) is a 
topographic representation of an area drawn to scale as seen from above. 
It provides the sniper team with a method for describing large areas while 
showing reliable distance and azimuths between major features. This 
type of sketch is useful in describing road systems, flow of streams /rivers, 
or locations of natural and man-made obstacles. Tie field sketch can also 
be used as an overlay on the range card. Information contained in a field 
sketch includes the following 

(1) Grid coordinates of the sniper team's position. 

(2) Name, rank, SSN, and unit. 

(3) Remarks. 

(4) Sketch name. 



4-44 



FM 23-10 



(5) Grid coordinates. 

(6) Weather. 

(7) Magnetic azimuth. 

(8) Sketch number and scale. 

(9) Date and time. 



MILITARY SKETCH 

«i«— *»-.m»Mi— mm * 



3rt»fc 



REMARKS: 



IS 460*. 

_ UfbKfD C«fl- 

cKtrg *vt> e»t 
tfoti> ? v«w/a«^ 

©Aw « 

QRoap 193* 
fIBove uutreK . 







REMARKS: 

tier fofteue 
is spAnes uy 

St> m e T*fi£». 
@}0)ooC6oN 

^-fofiiP 4oom 

$ 7XP3 6 s»m 
ArJNteKsecrioH 



SKETCH NAME: 

GRID rnnBniMATF- PL in.-ic.ua 

WPATMPR- SUM fillH. LfC 



NAME: ooe, T««W 
RANK: f-4* 

DATE/TIME: 



0AFOAMf7M-R,JUNM 



Figure 4-23. Example of completed DA Form 5788-R 
for topographic sketch. 

c. Guidelines for Drawing Sketches. As with all drawings, artistic 
skill is an asset, but satisfactory sketches can be drawn by anyone 
with practice. The following are guidelines when drawing sketches: 

(1) Workfrom the whole to the part. First determine the boundaries of 
the sketch. Then sketch the larger objects such as hills, mountains, or 
outlines of large buildings. After drawing the large objects in the sketch, 
start drawing the smaller details. 

(2) Use common shapes to show common objects. Do not sketch each 
individual tree, hedgerow, or wood line exactly. Use common shapes to 
show these types of objects. Do not concentrate on the fine details unless 
they are of tactical importance. 

(3) Draw in perspective-, use vanishing points. Try to draw sketches 
in perspective. To do this, recognize the vanishing points of the area to 



4-45 



FM 23-10 



be sketched. Parallel lines on the ground that are horizontal vanish at a 
point on the horizon (Figure 4-24). Parallel lines on the ground that slope 
downward away from the observer vanish at a point below the horizon. 
Parallel lines on the ground that slope upward, away from the observer 
vanish at a point above the horizon. Parallel lines that recede to the right 
vanish on the right and those that recede to the left vanish on the left 
(Figure 4-24). 



«£_. 




9 

© 

© 

© 








posrr 

OF 
rSKETC 

1 


ION 
-HER 



VANISHING 
POINT 



HORIZON j 




Figure 4-24. Vanishing points. 



4-28. SNIPER DATA BOOK 

The sniper data book is a written, chronological record of all activities and 
events that take place in a sniper team's area. It is used with military 
sketches and range cards; this combination not only gives commanders 
and intelligence personnel information about the appearance of the area, 
but it also provides an accurate record of the activity in the area. 
Information is recorded on DA Form 5786-R (Sniper's Observation Log) 
(Figure 4-25). (A blank copy of this form is in the back of this publication 
for local reproduction.) Information in the observation log includes: 
(Completion of this form is self-explanatory.) 

a. Sheet number and number of total sheets. 

b. Observer's name, rank, SSN, and unit. 

c. Date and time of observation and visibility. 



4-46 



FM 23-10 



d. Grid coordinates of the sniper team's position. 

e. Series number, time, and grid coordinates of each event. 

f. The event that has taken place. 

g. Action taken and remarks. 



*i™« »" E ™°~^ 8HEET ° F SHEETS 


ORIGINATOR: 

Cog, JoHMR 


DATE/TIME: 

/ OCT 92 


UOC ®427648 


SERIAL 


TIME 


GRID COORDINATE 


EVENT 


ACTIONS OR REMARKS 


1 
| 

4- 
5 

6 
7 
6 


O30o 
OJ«o 
O«0 

0550 

063O 
DfcSS 

O9O0 


GL034276+6 
SAME 

SAME 
SAME 

©L034276428 

GUI34Z76428 
©U0342764Z8 


occWi£t> FfesrrioN 

PFCJUDSON *ESTH> __._,. 

prejuo9oN/esuMH>o«sawK» 

R>TH OF OS AWAKE 
VftEFMlfcP RAM&e CAW AHD 
TSpO&RAPHIC SKETCH 

BRjacrosseo bmp&6 
GoiHC, Sooth 

fk6pwet> SKETCH oFBRlWe 

6L03II763I 

MtSSON CoMPteTEP -WIil«NW» 


OBSERVATION 

NOUS 
X RgSTtP 

NON& 
USHT* ENOUGH 

oBS£P.V£P 

complete 

&NP OF- MISSION 



OA FORM CTM-ft, JUN M 



Figure 4-25. Example of completed DA Form 5786-R. 



4-47 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 5 
MISSION PREPARATION 

The sniper team uses planning factors to estimate the amount of 
time, coordinating and effort that must be expended to support the 
impending mission. Arms, ammunition, and equipment are 
METT-T dependent. 

Section I 
PLANNING AND COORDINATION 

Planning and coordination are essential procedures that occur during the 
preparation phase of a mission. 

5-1. MISSION ALERT 

The sniper team may receive a mission briefing in either written or oral form 
(FRAGO). Usually, the team mission is stated specifically as to who, what, 
when, where, and why/how. On receipt of an order, the sniper analyzes his 
mission to ensure he understands it, then plans the use of available time. 

5-2. WARNING ORDER 

Normally, the sniper team receives the mission briefing. However, if the 
sniper receives the briefing, he prepares to issue a warning order 
immediately after the briefing or as soon as possible. He informs the 
observer or the situation and mission and gives him specific and 
general instructions. If the sniper team receives the mission briefing, the 
sniper should still present the warning order to the observer to clarify and 
emphasize the details of the mission oriefing. 

5-3. TENTATIVE PLAN 

The sniper makes a tentative plan of how he intends to accomplish the mission. 
When the mission is complex and time is short, he makes a quick, mental 



5-1 



FM 23-10 



estimate; when time is available, he makes a formal, mental estimate. The 
sniper learns as much as he can about the enemy and mission requirements 
and applies it to the terrain in the assigned area. Since an on-the-ground 
reconnaissance is not tactically feasible for most sniper operations, the 
sniper uses maps, pictomaps, or aerial photographs of the objective and 
surrounding area to help formulate his tentative plan. This plan is the 
basis for team preparation, coordination, movement, and reconnaissance. 

5-4. COORDINATION CHECKLISTS 

Coordination is continuous throughout the planning phase of the 
operation (see coordination checklists) (for example, aircraft, parachutes, 
or helicopters). Other items are left for the sniper to coordinate. 
He normally conducts coordination at the briefing location. To save 
time, he assigns tasks to the observer and has him report back with 
the results. However, the sniper is responsible for all coordination. 
He uses coordination checklists to verify mission-essential equipment for 
the mission. He coordinates directly with appropriate staff sections or 
the S3, or the SEO will provide the necessary information. The sniper 
may carry a copy of the coordination checklists to ensure he does not 
overlook an item that may be vital to the mission. Coordination with 
specific staff sections includes the following: 

NOTE: Items may need coordination with more than one staff 
section; therefore, some items are listed under more than one heading. 

a. Intelligence. The S2 informs the sniper of any changes in the 
situation as given in the OPORD or mission briefing. The sniper 
constantly updates the tentative plan with current information. 

(1) Identification of the unit. 

(2) Weather and light data. 

(3) Terrain update. 

• Aerial photos. 

• Trails and obstacles not on map. 

(4) Known or suspected enemy locations. 

(5) weapons. 

(6) Strength. 

(7) Probable courses of action. 

(8) Recent enemy activity. 

(9) Reaction time of reaction forces. 

(10) Civilian activity in area. 

(11) Priority intelligence requirements and information requirements. 

(12) Challenge and password. 



5-2 



FM 23-10 



b. Operations. The sniper coordinates with the operations section 
to receive the overall status of the mission. 

(1) Identification of the unit. 

(2) Changes in the friendly situation. 

(3) Route selections and LZ and PZ selections. 

(4) Linkup procedure. 

(5) Transportation (other than air). 

(6) Resupply (along with S4). 

(7) Signal plan. 

(8) Departure and reentry of forward units. 

(9) Special equipment requirements. 

(10) Adjacent units operating in the area of operations. 

(11) Rehearsal areas. 

(12) Method of insertion/extraction. 

(13) Frequencies and call signs. 

c. Fire Support. Usually, the sniper coordinates fire support with 
the fire support officer. 

(1) Identification of the unit. 

(2) Mission and objective. 

(3) Routes to and from the objective (including alternate routes). 

(4) Time of departure and expected time of return. 

(5) Unit target list (fire plan). 

(6) Fire support means available (artillery, mortar, naval gunfire, 
and aerial fire support to include Army, Navy, and Air Force). 

(7) Ammunition available (to include different fuzes). 

(8) Priority of fires. 

(9) Control measures for fire support. 

• Checkpoints. 

• Boundaries. 

• Phase lines. 

• Fire support coordination measures. 

• Priority targets (list TRPs). 

• RFA. 

• RFL. 

• No-fire areas. 

• Precoordinate authentication. 

(10) Communications (include primary and alternate means, emergency 
signals, and code words and signals). 



5-3 



FM 23-10 



d. Coordination with Forward Unit. A sniper team that must move 
through a friendly forward unit must coordinate with the unit commander 
for a smooth, orderly passage. If there is no coordination time and place, 
the sniper sets the time and place with the S2 and S3. Then, he informs 
the forward unit and arranges assistance for the team's departure. 
Coordination is a two-way exchange of information. 

(1) Identification (team leader, observer, and unit). 

(2) Size of team. 

(3) Time(s) and place(s) of departure and return, location(s) of 
departure point(s), IRPs, and detrucking points. 

(4) General area of operation. 

(5) Information on terrain and vegetation. 

(6) Known or suspected enemy positions or obstacles. 

(7) Possible enemy ambush sites. 

(8) Latest enemy activity. 

(9) Detailed information on friendly positions (for example, 
crew-served weapons or final protective fire). 

(10) Fire and barrier plan. 

(11) Support the forward unit can furnish. How long and what can 
they do? 

• Fire support. 

• Litter teams. 

• Navigational signals and aids. 

• Guides. 

• Communications. 

• Reaction units. 

• Other. 

(12) Call signs and frequencies and exchange of Vinson crypto- 
graphic variables. 

• Pyrotechnic plans. 

• Challenge and password. 

• Emergency signals and codewords. 

• Relieved unit (pass information to the relieving unit). 

e. Adjacent Unit Coordination. Immediately after receiving the 
OPORD or mission briefing, the sniper coordinates with other units using 
the same area. If he is not aware of other units, he should check with the 
S3 to arrange coordination. The sniper exchanges the following 
information with other units or snipers operating in the same area: 

(1) Identification of the unit. 

(2) Mission and size of unit. 



5-4 



FM 23-10 



(3) Planned times and points of departure and reentry. 

(4) Route. 

(5) Fire support (planned) and control measures. 

(6) Frequency, call signs, and exchange of Vinson cryptographic 
variables. 

(7) Challenge and password and or number. 

(8) Pyrotechnic plans. 

(9) Any information that the unit may have about the enemy. 

f. Rehearsal Area Coordination. The sniper coordinates with the S2 
or S3. 

(1) Identification of own unit. 

(2) Mission. 

(3) Terrain similar to objective site. 

(4) Security of the area. 

(5) Availability of aggressors. 

(6) Use of blanks, pyrotechnics, live ammunition. 

(7) Mockups available. 

(8) Time the area is available (preferably when light conditions are 
close to the expected light conditions for the mission). 

(9) Transportation. 

(10) Coordination with other units using the area. 

g. Army Aviation Coordination. The sniper coordinates with the 
supporting aviation unit commander through the S3 or S3 Air. 

(1) Situation: 

(a) Enemy forces: Location, activity, probable course of action, and 
enemy air defense. 

(b) Weather: Decision time/POC any delay for the mission. 

(c) Friendly forces: Main mission, activity, boundaries, axis 
of movement. 

(2) Mission: Task and purpose. 

(3) Execution: 

(a) Concept of the operation: Overview of what requesting unit wants 
to accomplish with the air assault/ air movement. 

(b) Coordinating instructions (PZ operation): 

• Direction of landing. 

• Time of landing /flight direction. 

• Location of PZ/ alternate PZ. 

• Loading procedures. 

• Marking of PZ (panel, smoke, smoke munitions, lights). 



5-5 



FM 23-10 

• Flight route planned (start point, air control point, rally point). 

• Formation of landing/flight/landing (LZ). 

• Code words: PZ secure (before landing); PZ clear (lead plane, 
last plane); alternate PZ (at PZ en route, at landing zone); 
names of PZ/alternate PZ. 

• TAC air/artillery. 

• Number of passengers/planes for entire lift. 

• Equipment carried by individuals. 

• Secure PZ or not. 

• Marking of key leaders (LZ operations). 

• Direction of landing. 

• Time of landing, false insertions. 

• Location of LZ or alternate LZ. 

• Marking of LZ (panel, smoke, SM, lights). 

• Formation of landing. 

• Codewords: LZ name, alternate LZ name. 

• TAC air/artillery preparation, fire support coordination. 

• Secure LZ or not. 

(4) Service support: 

(a) Number or aircraft, times, number of lifts. 

(b) Refuel/rearm during mission or not. 

(c) Special equipment /aircraft configuration for weapons earned by 
unit personnel. 

(d) Bump plan. 

(5) Command and signal: 

(a) Frequency and call signs. 

(b) Location of air mission commander. 

h. Vehicle Movement Coordination. The sniper coordinates with 
the supporting unit through the S3. 

(1) Identification of the unit. 

(2) Supporting unit identification. 

(3) Number and type of vehicles and tactical preparation. 

(4) Entrucking point. 

(5) Departure/loading time. 

(6) Preparation of vehicles for movement. 

• Driver responsibilities. 

• Sniper team responsibilities. 

• Special supplies/equipment required. 



5-6 



FM 23-10 

(7) Availability of vehicles for preparation /rehearsal /inspection 
(time and location). 

(8) Route 

• Primary. 

• Alternate. 

• Checkpoints. 

(9) Detrucking points. 

• Primary. 

• Alternate. 

(10) March interval/speed. 

(11) Communications (frequencies, call signs, codes). 

(12) Emergency procedures and signals. 

5-5. COMPLETION OF PLAN 

After the warning order has been issued and a thorough map reconnaissance 
made, most coordination should be completed. The sniper makes an 
intelligence update while the observer prepares himself and the 
equipment for the mission. The sniper completes his plan based on his 
map reconnaissance and or any changes in the enemy situation. He may 
or may not alter the tentative plan, but he can add detail. The sniper uses 
the OPORD format as a guide to refine his concept. He places the main 
focus on actions in the objective area and carefully assigns the observer 
specific tasks for all phases of the operation. He ensures all actions work 
smoothly and efficiently. 

5-6. OPERATION ORDER 

The operation order is issued in the standard OPORD format. 
Extensive use of terrain models, sketches, and chalkboards should be 
made to highlight important details such as routes, planned rally points, 
and actions at known danger areas. All aspects of the OPORD should be 
thoroughly understood oy the sniper team to include memorizing 
the following 

• Intelligence acquisition tasks. 

• Situation— both friendly and enemy. 

• Mission. 

• Execution plan. 

• Administrative plans. 

• Communications and electronics, including frequencies, call 
signs, and antennas to be used. 

• SALUTE format. 



5-7 



FM 23-10 

5-7. BRIEFBACK 

The sniper team rehearses the briefback until it is near-perfect before 
presenting it to the S3, sniper employment officer, or commander. 
A good briefback indicates the team's readiness for the mission. 
(Figure 5-1 is an example of a sniper team briefback outline.) 



$ 



SNIPER BRIEFBACK OUTLINE 

1. Team Leader. 

a. Introduction of patrol. 

b. Mission statement. 

2. Team Leader — Execution Plan. 

a. Insertion, 
fl) Method. 

(2) Location. 

(3) Time. 

b. Reconnaissance. 
Position. 
Method. 

c. Extraction, 
fl) Method. 

(2) Location. 

(3) Time. 

(4) Evasion route/plan. 

3. Observer — Administrative Plan (Sl)/Logistical 
Plan (S41 

b. Wounded in action/killed in action. 

c. Camera information/film/log. 

d. Mission logbook. 

e. Allergies/aid kit. 

f. Customs and cultural problems. 

g. MEDEVAC plan (tactical), 
h. Rations. 

i. Water, 
j. Resupply. 



Figure 5-1 . Briefback outline. 



5-8 



FM 23-10 



4. Observer — Intelligence (S2). 

a. Enemy situation. 

b. Friendly situation. 

c. Weather. 

d. Terrain restrictions (including MEDEVAC 
restrictions). 

e. Light data, percentage of illumination. 

f. Order of battle. 

g. Intelligence acquisition task. 

5. Observer — Communications and Electronics. 

a. Window times and format. 

b. Frequencies and call signs. 

c. Antenna-type and terrain considerations. 

d. Special equipment. 

e. Codewords. 

6. Team Leader — Conclusion. 

a. Restate mission. 

b. Combat medical plan. 

c. Special Instructions Relating to Training 
Mission. 

(1) Contact with civilians. 

(2) Local authority POC. 

(3) Maneuver restrictions. 



Figure 5-1. Briefback outline (continued). 

5-8. EQUIPMENT CHECK 

The sniper team ensures needed equipment is operational before signing 
it out. Weapons are clean, functional, and test-fired to confirm zero. 
The team checks radios by making a communications check with the NCS 
of the net they will be using and night vision devices by turning them on 
(adding an extra battery). The team then double-checks all equipment. 
If they encounter problems, the sniper notifies the PSG or SEO. 

5-9. FINAL INSPECTION 

Inspections reveal the team's physical and mental state of readiness. 
The sniper ensures that all required equipment is present and functional, 

5-9 



FM 23-10 

and that the observer knows and understands the mission. The following 
items should be inspected: 

• Completeness and correctness of uniform and equipment. 

• Items such as pictures, papers, marked maps, and sniper data 
book that contain confidential material. 

• Hats and pockets. 

• Shine, rattles, and tie-downs. 

• Weapons (loaded or unloaded). 

• Fullness of canteens. 

If unauthorized items are found, the sniper immediately corrects any 
deficiencies. Then, he questions the observer to make sure he knows the 
team plan, what his job is, and when he is to do it. 

5-10. REHEARSALS 

Rehearsals ensure team proficiency. During rehearsals, the sniper 
rechecks his plans and makes any needed changes. It is through 
well-directed and realistic rehearsals that the team becomes thoroughly 
familiar with their actions on the mission. 

a. The sniper team uses terrain similar to that on which they will 
operate (if available), rehearsing all actions if time permits. A good way 
to rehearse is to talk the team through each phase, describing the actions 
of each sniper, and then perform the actions as a dry run. When actions 
are understood, the sniper team goes through all the phases, using the 
signals and commands to be used during the mission. 

b. If there is no time for rehearsals, the sniper team conducts a 
briefback/ talk-through . This method is used to supplement rehearsals or 
when security needs or a lack of time preclude dry runs and wet runs. 
In this method, the team leader talks the observer through his actions and 
then has him orally repeat those actions. The sniper team establishes the 
sequence of actions to be rehearsed and, if time permits, conducts 
rehearsals in the same sequence as in the mission. 

5-11. FINAL PREPARATIONS 

The sniper makes any last-minute changes and corrects any deficiencies 
found during initial inspections. Final inspection should be made by the 
SEO and an S3 representative. Again, pockets and rucksacks are emptied 
and inspected. The inspection team looks for personal papers, marked 
maps, and other unauthorized items. The sniper ensures all previous 
discrepancies are corrected; equipment is still operational; all needed 



5-10 



FM 23-10 



items are present; and the observer is ready for the mission. The 
inspection team randomly asks questions about the mission. 

5-12. PREPARATION FOR DEBRIEFING 

After the mission, the SEO or S3 representative directs the sniper team 
to an area where they prepare for a debriefing. The team remains in the 
area until called to the operations center. The sniper will bring the sniper 
data book that contains a log sheet, a field sketch, a range card, and a 
road/area sketch for debriefing, 
a. The sniper team— 

(1) Lays out and accounts for all team and individual equipment. 

(2) Consolidates all captured material and equipment. 

(3) Reviews and discusses the events listed in the mission logbook 
from insertion to return, including details of each enemy sighting. 

(4) Prepares an overlay of the team's route, area or operations, 
insertion point, extraction point, and significant sighting locations. 

b. An S3 representative controls the debriefing. He directs 
the sniper— 

(1) To discuss any enemy sightings since the last communications 
with the radio base station. 

(2) To give a step-by-step amount of each event listed in the mission 
logbook from insertion until reentry of the FFL, including details of all 
enemy sightings. 

c. When the debriefing is complete, the S3 representative releases 
the sniper team back to platoon control. 

5-13. COUNTERSNIPER OPERATION 

When an enemy sniper threat has been identified in the sniper team's area 
of operations, the team is employed to eliminate the enemy sniper. 

a. A sniper team identifies an existing sniper threat by using the 
following indicators: 

(1) Enemy soldiers in special camouflage uniforms. 

(2) Enemy soldiers seen carrying weapons in cases or drag bags or 
weapons with long barrel lengths, mounted telescopes, and bolt-action 
receivers. 

(3) Single-shot fire. 

(4) Lack or reduction of enemy patrols during single-shot fire. 

(5) Light reflecting from optical lenses. 

(6) Reconnaissance patrols reporting small groups of (one to three) 
enemy soldiers. 



5-11 



FM 23-10 

(7) Discovery of single expended casings, such as 7.62-mm ammunition. 

b. The sniper team then determines the best method to eliminate the 
enemy sniper. To accomplish this, the team gathers information and 
determines the pattern. 

(1) Gathers information. 

(a) Time of day precision fire occurs. 

(b) Location of encountered enemy sniper fire. 

(c) Location of enemy sniper sightings. 

(d) Material evidence of enemy snipers, such as empty brass casings 
or equipment. 

(2) Determines patterns. The sniper team evaluates the information 
to detect established patterns or routines. The team conducts a map 
reconnaissance, studies aerial photographs, or carries out ground 
reconnaissance to determine the movement patterns. The sniper must 
place himself in the position of the enemy and ask, "How would I 
accomplish this mission?" 

c. Once a pattern or routine is identified, the sniper team determines 
the best location and time to engage the enemy sniper. The team can also 
request the following: 

(1) Coordinating routes and fires. 

(2) Additional preplotted targets (fire support). 

(3) Infantry support to canalize or ambush the enemy sniper. 

(4) Additional sniper teams for mutual supporting fire. 

(5) Baiting of likely engagement areas to deceive the enemy sniper 
into commitment by firing. 

(6) All elements in place 12 hours before the expected engage- 
ment time. 

During a countersniper operation, the team must ignore battle activity 
and concentrate on the enemy sniper. 

d. When an enemy sniper is operating in a unit's area, the sniper team 
ensures the unit employs passive countermeasures to defend against 
enemy sniper fire. 

(1) Do not establish routines. For example, consistent meal times, 
ammunition resupply, assembly area procedures, or day-to-day activities 
that have developed into a routine. 

(2) Conduct all meetings, briefings, or gatherings of personnel 
undercover or during limited visibility. 

(3) Cover or conceal equipment. 

5-12 



FM 23-10 



(4) Remove rank from helmets and collars. Do not salute officers. 
Leaders should not use authoritative methods. 

(5) Increase OPs and use other methods to increase the unit's 
observation abilities. 

(6) Brief patrols on what to look for, such as single, expended rounds 
or different camouflage materials. 

(7) Do not display awareness of the enemy's presence at any time. 

5-14. REACTION TO ENEMY SNIPER FIRE 

Although the sniper team's mission is to eliminate the enemy sniper, the 
team avoids engaging in a sustained battle with the enemy sniper. If the 
team is pinned down by enemy sniper fire and the sniper's position cannot 
be determined, the sniper team attempts to break contact to vacate the 
enemy sniper's kill zone. 

a. The sniper team uses either hand-held or artillery generated 
smoke to obscure the enemy sniper's view. If the smoke provides 
sufficient obscuration, the sniper team breaks contact and calls for 
indirect fire on the enemy sniper position. If the smoke does not provide 
sufficient obscuration, the sniper team calls for an immediate suppression 
mission against the enemy sniper position. The team then breaks contact 
under the cover of indirect fire. 

b. The sniper team should expect indirect fire and increased enemy 
patrolling activity shortly after contact with an enemy sniper. 



Section II 
MISSION PACKING LISTS 

The sniper team requires arms and ammunition as determined 
by METT-T Some of the equipment mentioned in the example lists may 
not be available. A sniper team carries only mission-essential equipment 
normally not associated with a standard infantryman. 

5-15. ARMS AND AMMUNITION 

As a minimum, the sniper team requires arms and ammunition that 
should include the following 
a. Sniper: 

• M24 sniper weapon system with M3A scope. 

• M9 bayonet. 

• 100 rounds M118 special ball. 

• M9 pistol. 



5-13 



FM 23-10 

• 45 rounds 9-mm ball ammunition. 

• 4 M67 fragmentation grenades; 2 CS grenades; 2 concussion 
grenades (MOUT). 

• M18A1 mine, complete. 

b. Observer: 

• M16A1/A2/M203 with quadrant sight and AN/PVS-4 mounted. 

• M9 9-mm pistol. 

• M9 bayonet. 

• 210 (plus) rounds 5.56-mm ball ammunition. 

• 45 rounds 9-mm ball ammunition. 

• 6 rounds 40-mm high-explosive ammunition. 

• 3 rounds 40-mm antipersonnel ammunition. 

• 4 M67 fragmentation grenade, 2 CS grenades; 2 concussion 
grenades (MOUT). l 

5-16. SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 

The sniper team requires special equipment that may include, but not be 
limited to the following 
a. Sniper: 

• M24 sniper weapon system deployment kit (tools and 
replacement parts). 

• M9 pistol cleaning kit. 

• Extra handset for radio. 

• Extra batteries for radio (BA 4386 or lithium, dependent on 
mission length). 

• SOI. 

• M15 tripod. 

• M49 observation telescope. 

• AN/PVS-5/7 series, night vision goggles. 

• Extra BA-1567/U or AA batteries for night vision goggles. 

• Pace cord. 

• E-tool with carrier. 

• 50-foot 550 cord. 

• 1 green and 1 red star cluster. 

• 2 HC smoke grenades. 

• Measuring tape (25-foot carpenter- type). 

• 3 each 9-mm magazines 



5-14 



FM 23-10 



Observer: 

M16A1/A2 cleaning kit. 
M203 cleaning kit. 
AN/PRC-77/AN-PRC-119/AN/PRC-104A radios. 

Radio accessory bag, complete with long whip and base, tape 

antenna and base, handset, and battery (BA-4386 or lithium). 

300-feet WD-1 field wire (for field-expedient antenna fabrication). 

Olive-drab duct tape ("100-mph" tape). 

Extra batteries for radio (if needed). 

Extra batteries (BA-1567/U) for AN/PVS-4. 

M19/M22 binoculars. 

Sniper's data book, mission logbook, range cards, wind tables, 

ana "slope dope." 

7 each 30-round capacity (5.56-mm) magazines. 

3 each 9-mm magazines. 

Calculator with extra battery. 

Butt pack. 

10 each sandwich-size waterproof bags. 

2 HC smoke grenades. 

Lineman's tool. 

Range estimation (sniper data book). 

5-17. UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT 

A recommended listing of common uniforms and equipment follows; 
however, weather and terrain will dictate the uniform. As a minimum, 
the sniper team should have the following 

• Footgear (jungle/desert/cold weather/combat boots). 

• 2 sets BDUs (desert/woodland/camouflage). 

• Black leather gloves. 

• 2 brown T-shirts. 

• 2 brown underwear (optional). 

• 8 pair olive-drab wool socks. 

• Black belt. 

• Headgear (BDU/ jungle /desert/ cold weather). 

• ID tags and ID card. 

• Wristwatch (sweep second hand with luminous dial/ waterproof). 

• Pocket survival knife. 



5-15 



FM 23-10 

Extra large ALICE pack, complete with frame and shoulder straps. 
2 waterproof bags (for ALICE pack). 
2 two-quart canteens with covers. 

1 bottle water purification tablets. 
LBE complete. 

Red-lensed flashlight (angle-head type with extra batteries). 
MREs (number dependent on mission length). 
9-mm pistol holster and magazine pouch (attached to LBE). 

2 camouflage sticks (METT-T dependent). 
2 black ink pens. 
2 mechanical pencils with lead. 
2 black grease pencils. 
Lensatic compass. 

Map(s) of operational area and protractor. 
Poncho. 
Poncho liner. 

1 each ghillie suit complete. 
1 each protective mask/MOPP suit. 
Foot powder. 
Toiletries. 
FM 23-10. 

5-18. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT 

Certain situations may require equipment for specialized tasks and is 
METT-T dependent. The following equipment may prove useful in 
different climates/operational areas: 

• M203 vest. 

• Desert camouflage netting. 

• Natural-colored burlap. 

• Glitter tape. 

• VS-17 panel. 

• Strobe light with filters. 

• Special patrol insertion/extraction system harness. 

• 12-foot sling rope. 

• 2 each snap links. 

• 120-foot nylon rope. 



5-16 



FM 23-10 

Lip/sunscreen. 

Signal mirror. 

Pen gun with flares. 

Chemical lights (to include infrared). 

Body armor /flak jacket. 

Sniper veil. 

Sewing kit. 

Insect repellant. 

Sleeping bag. 

Knee and elbow pads. 

Survival kit. 

Rifle drag bag. 

Pistol silencer/suppressor. 

2.5-pounds C4 with caps, cord, fuze, and igniter. 

Rifle biped/tripod. 

Empty sandbags. 

Hearing protection (earmuffs). 

Thermometer. 

Laser range finder. 

Thermal imager. 

Pocket binoculars. 

35-mm automatic loading camera with appropriate lenses and film. 

%-inch camcorder with accessories. 

Satellite communications equipment. 

Short-range radio with earphone and whisper microphone. 

Field-expedient antennas. 

Information reporting formats. 

Encryption device for radio. 

5-19. SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT (MOUT) 

For operations in urban areas, the following tools and equipment are most 
useful; however, they are subject to availability 

• Pry bar. 

• Pliers. 

• Screwdriver. 

• Rubber-headed hammer. 



5-17 



FM 23-10 

Glass cutter. 

Masonry drill and bits. 

Metal shears. 

Chisel. 

Auger. 

Lock pick, skeleton keys, cobra pick. 

Bolt cutters. 

Hacksaw or handsaw. 

Sledgehammer. 

Axe. 

Ram. 

Power saw. 

Cutting torch. 

Shotgun. 

Spray paint. 

Stethoscope. 

Maps/street plans. 

Photographs, aerial and panoramic. 

Whistle. 

Luminous tape. 

Flex cuffs. 

Padlocks. 

Intrusion detection system (booby traps). 

Portable spotlights. 

Money. 

Civilian attire. 

5-20. ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT TRANSPORT 

The planned use of air and vehicle drops and caching techniques 
eliminates the need for the sniper team to carry extra equipment. 
Another method is to use the stay^behind technique when operating with 
a security patrol. (See Chapter 7.) Through coordination with the 
security patrol leader, the team's equipment may be distributed among 
the patrol members. On arrival at the ORP, the security patrol may leave 
behind all mission-essential equipment. After completing the mission, 
the team may cache the equipment for later pickup, or it may be returned 
the same way it was brought in. 



5-18 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 6 
OPERATIONS 

The SEO aids the sniper team in coordination of air support 
available for the three phases of operations: insertion, execution, 
and extraction and recovery. These techniques may be limited by 
the type of unit to which the sniper team is assigned, depending on 
the unit's resources. The team should adhere to the plan outlined 
in this chapter. 

Section I 
INSERTION 

Insertion is the first critical phase of sniper operations. Regardless of the 
mission, the team must pass through terrain where the enemy may use 
sophisticated detection devices. The selected method of insertion 
depends on the mission, enemy situation, resources available, weather and 
terrain, depth of penetration, and mission priority. 

6-1. PLANNING INSERTION 

The preferred method of insertion is the one that best reduces the chance 
of detection. To provide the most current and specific details on the target 
area and infiltration routes from all sources, the headquarters and the 
sniper team adhere to the following: 

a. Intelligence. Base operational plans on timely and accurate 
intelligence. Place special emphasis on efforts to obtain information on the 
enemy's ability to detect forces inserted by air, water, or land. The location 
and capabilities of air defense radar and weapons systems are critical. 

b. Deception. Make plans to deny the enemy Knowledge of the sniper 
team's insertion or to deceive him as to the location or intent of 
the operation. False insertions and other cover operations (such as air 
strikes, ground attacks, and air assault operations), as well as the use of 



6-1 



FM 23-10 

multiple routes and means of insertion, ECM, and false transmissions, 
contribute to sniper deception plans. Select unexpected means of 
insertion, times, places, and routes, coupled with speed and mobility to 
help deceive the enemy. Also include in plans diversionary fires to direct 
the enemy's attention away from the team. Specific techniques may include 
the following 

(1) Multiple airdrops, water landings, or both. 

(2) Dispersion of insertion craft (air or water) if more than one, both 
in time and location. 

(3) Landing a force in an area closer to other potential targets than 
to the actual targets. 

(4) Leaks of false information. 

(5) False landings or insertions. 

(6) Diversionary actions, such as air strikes in other areas. 

(7) Increased reconnaissance flights over false areas. 

c. Speed and Mobility. Tailor individual loads to enhance speed and 
mobility, and balance these loads with the mission-related items necessary 
to achieve success. Speed is essential to limit the amount of time required 
to insert the team. If possible, carry only what is needed immediately and 
cache the rest to be retrieved. 

d. Stealth. Stress stealth to avoid detection or interception by the 
enemy at the time of insertion during movement along routes and while 
traveling from the insertion area to the target area. 

e. Suppression. Suppress enemy detection devices, weapons 
systems, and command and control facilities by electronic jamming or by 
suppressive fires. This detracts from the enemy's ability to discover 
the team during infiltration. Deception techniques contribute to 
suppression activities. 

f. Security. Emphasize security measures to prevent compromise of 
the impending operation during preparation. This includes the security 
of rehearsal and training sites. Some measures that maybe used to assist 
in maintaining security areas follows: 

(1) Restrict access to the isolation area during planning. 

(2) Brief details of the operation to the team in the isolation area. 

(3) Limit knowledge of planned operations on a need-to-know basis. 

g. Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition. Increase the 
use of RSTA equipment to detect and avoid enemy forces and their 
detection devices. Use passive night vision devices to achieve rapid 
assembly and reorganization. Also use these devices to help control and 
speed of movement and to traverse seemingly impassable terrain. 



6-2 



FM 23-10 



h. Rehearsals. Ensure rehearsals parallel, as close as possible, the 
actual conditions of insertion or extraction. Conduct rehearsals on 
terrain similar to that in the target area. 

i. Sand Tables. Use sand tables in the planning phase since they are 
effective for orienting the team on unfamiliar DZs and surrounding terrain. 
The use of sand tables and terrain models enhance orderly and rapid assembly 
on the ground during the issuance of prejump orders and briefings. 

6-2. AIR INSERTION 

Air insertion is the fastest way to infiltrate. Sniper teams and equipment may 
be delivered by parachute (static-line or free-fall technique), fixed-wing 
(air landing), or helicopter (air landing, rappelling, or parachuting). 

a. Special Factors. When planning an air insertion, headquarters 
considers several factors. 

(1) A primary danger area is the perimeter (frontier area] where the 
enemy uses the most sophisticated weapons systems and air defenses. 

(a) Suppression of enemy air defense maybe necessary along the 
infiltration corridor. This is done by a variety of sophisticated counter- 
measures applied against enemy equipment and by strikes against known 
enemy positions. Artillery, aircraft, or naval gunfire may provide assistance. 

(b) Fire support, smoke screens, and suppressive measures may be 
critical since most of the enemy's detection devices and air defense 
weapons may be near the point of entry. Special equipment may be 
required to counter the enemy's RSTA effort whether moving by air, 
water, or land. 

(2) If this area is within artillery or NGF range, fires should be 
planned on known and suspected enemy antiaircraft locations and on 
prominent landforms along the route. 

(3) All flights over enemy territory should be routed over 
unoccupied areas, if possible. Flights should be planned to complement 
cover and deception phases and to avoid enemy air defenses. 

(4) Since the sniper team depends on the transporting unit during 
this phase, snipers must coordinate all aspects of the air insertion with 
these units. To lower the chances of detection, the team makes the 
greatest use of reduced visibility, tactical cover, and deception. Drop zones 
and landing zones should be behind tree lines, in small forest clearings, 
or on other inconspicuous terrain. 

(5) The sniper team considers the chance of in-flight emergencies. 
It must know the route and the checkpoints along the route. The team 
establishes simple ground assembly plans for contingencies before 
boarding. In an emergency, the SEO decides whether to continue or 



6-3 



FM 23-10 

abort the mission. In the absence of the SEO, the sniper makes the 
decision based on METT-T factors, contingency plans, ana the distance to 
the target as compared to the distance back to forward friendly lines. 
Contingency provisions should be made for air and water rescue as well. 

b. Special Airborne Assault Techniques. In airborne insertions 
during limited visibility, the headquarters emphasizes special delivery or 
navigational techniques. 

(1) With the AW ADS, personnel and equipment can be air-dropped 
during bad weather, even during zero-visibility conditions. Insertions may 
be made (day or night) without a pre-positioned USAF combat control 
team or an Army assault team. The supporting air unit requires both 
extensive DZ intelligence and significant lead time. All forces involved 
must thoroughly plan and coordinate the operation. 

(2) HALO or HAHO jumps with high-performance parachutes allow 
parachutists to maneuver to a specific point on the ground. During these 
operations, they can use midair assembly procedures. 

c. Assembly. The sniper team must be able to assemble and 
reorganize quickly and precisely because of its vulnerability to detection. 
The team develops assembly plans after careful consideration of METT-T 
factors, especially the location of the enemy, visibility, terrain, DZ 
information, dispersion pattern, and cross-loading. The number of 
assembly areas depends on the location, the size of available assembly 
areas, and the enemy's detection ability. 

(1) Terrain association may be used as a backup method of designating 
assembly areas, but it has obvious disadvantages if the unit misses the DZ 
or if an in-flight change in mission dictates use of a new drop zone. 

(2) A night vision plan is needed during landing, assembly, and 
movement in reduced visibility. 

(3) Cold weather airborne insertion is difficult. Allocated times 
must be increased by at least 30 minutes for cold weather insertions. 

(4) The team must be aware of the location of the assembly areas in 
relation to the direction of flight of the insertion aircraft. The direction 
of flight is 12 o'clock. 

(5) During parachute insertion, team members must be ready for 
enemy engagement at all times, especially on the DZ. Immediate-action 
drills are required to counter enemy contact on the DZ. 

d. Planning. The reverse planning process is of paramount 
importance for the ground tactical plan. The ground tactical plan, as 
developed from the mission assessment, is the first planning area to be 
considered. All other planning begins from this point. 



6-4 



FM 23-10 

(1) The selection of PZs or LZs requires adequate planning and 
coordination for effective use of air assets. Site selection must be 
coordinated face-to-face between the sniper team and the supporting 
aviation commander. The tactical situation is the key planning factor; 
others include the following: 

• Size of landing points. 

• Surface conditions. 

• Ground slopes 

• Approach and departure directions. 

• Aircraft command and control. 

• PZ and LZ identification. 

• Rehearsals. 

(2) The air movement plan coordinates movement of the team into 
the zone of action in a sequence that supports the landing plan. 
Key considerations are flight routes, air movement tables, flight 
formation, in-flight abort plan, altitude, and air speed. 

(3) The landing plan introduces the team into the target area at the 
proper time and place. Rehearsals cannot be overemphasized. The team 
rapidly assembles, reorganizes, and leaves the insertion site. Fire support, 
if available, may be artillery, NGF, attack helicopters, or USAF 
tactical aircraft. The fire support plan must support all other plans. 
Supporting fires must be thoroughly coordinated with the air 
mission commander. Other planning considerations are evasion and 
escape, actions at the last LZ, assembly plan, downed aircraft procedures, 
control measures, weather delays, deception plans, and OPSEC. 

6-3. AMPHIBIOUS INSERTION 

Water insertion may be by surface swimming, small boat, submarine, 
surface craft, helocasting, or a combination thereof. The sniper team 
needs detailed information to plan and execute a small-boat 
landing, which is the most difficult phase of a waterborne insertion. 
Close coordination is required with naval support units. 

a. Planning. While on the transporting craft, the team plans for all 
possible enemy actions and weather. Initial planning includes the following: 

(1) Time schedule. The time schedule of all events from the 
beginning until the end of the operation is used as a planning guide. 
Accurate timing for each event is critical to the success of the operation. 

(2) Embarkation point. The embarkation point is the point where the 
team enters the transporting craft. 



6-5 



FM 23-10 

(3) Drop site. The drop site is the site where the team leaves the 
primary craft and loads into a smaller boat. 

(4) Landing site. The landing site is the site where the team beaches 
the boat or lands directly from amphibious craft. 

(5) Loading. Loads and lashings, with emphasis on waterproofing, 
are followed LAW unit SOPs. Supervisors must perform inspections. 

b. Beach Landing Site Selection. The beach landing site must allow 
undetected approach. When possible, the team avoids landing sites that 
cannot be approached from several different directions. The site chosen 
allows insertion without enemy detection. If sand beaches are used, 
tracks and other signs must be erased that may compromise the mission. 
Rural, isolated areas are preferred. The coastal area behind the landing 
site should provide a concealed avenue of exit. Other factors considered 
in each selection include enemy dispositions, distance to the target area, 
characteristics of landing and exit sites, and availability of cover and 
concealment. 

c. Tactical Deception. Besides the water approach route plan, plans 
must deny the enemy knowledge of the insertion. This may include use 
of ECM or diversionary fire support to direct the enemy's attention away 
from the insertion site. 

d. Routes. The route to the drop site should be planned to deceive the 
enemy. If possible, the route should oe similar to that used in other types of 
naval operations (minelaying, sweeping, or patrolling). A major route change 
immediately after the team s debarkation may compromise the mission. 

e. Navigation. Ship-to-shore navigation (to the landing site) maybe 
accomplished by dead reckoning to a shoreline silhouette or radar. 

f. Actions at the Drop Site. Primary and alternate drop sites must be 
agreed upon. The drop site should be at least 1,500 meters offshore to 
prevent compromise by noise during loading and launching. (Some operations 
may permit landing directly from the transporting craft on shore.) If the 
enemy has surface radar capability, the drop site may need to be several 
miles offshore, or the use of ECM may be required. 

g. Actions at the Beach Landing Site. To plan actions at the landing 
site, the team must consider the following: 

• Actions during movement to the beach. 

• Noise and light discipline. 

• Navigational techniques and responsibilities. 

• Actions on the beach. 

• Plan for unloading boats (SOP). 

• Plan for disposal or camouflage of boats. 



6-6 



FM 23-10 



h. Actions on the Beach. Once on the beach, sniper team members 
move to a covered and concealed security position to defend the landing site. 
The sniper team then conducts a brief listening halt and checks the beach 
landing area for signs of enemy activity. The team may deflate, bury, or 
camouflage the boat near the landing site or away from it, depending on the 
enemy situation, the terrain, and the time available. If the boat is to be 
disposed of or hidden near the landing site, a member must be designated to 
dig a hole or cut brush for camouflage. After the boat is disposed of, a 
designated team member sweeps the beach to erase tracks and drag marks, 
i. Insertion by Air From Ship. Helicopters launched from a ship may 
extend the range of sniper teams. They may be vectored from ships to a 
predetermined LZ. Once in the air, other aspects of landing and 
assembling are the same as for air movement operations. 

j. Helocasting. Helocasting combines a helicopter and small boat in 
the same operation. It is planned and conducted much the same as air 
movement operations, except that the LZ is in the water. While a 
helicopter moves at low levels (20 feet) and low speeds (20 knots), the 
sniper team launches a small boat and enters the water. Members then 
assemble, climb into the boat, and continue the mission. 

k. Contingency Planning. The following contingencies must be 
covered in the planning stage: 

Enemy contact en route. 

Hot helocast site. 

Flares. 

Aerial attack. 

Small arms. 

Indirect fire. 

Downed aircraft procedure (if applicable). 

Evasion and escape. 

High surf. 

Adverse weather. 

Separation. 

1. Rehearsals. The team must rehearse all aspects of the amphibious 
insertion to include boat launching, paddling, boat commands, capsize 
drills, beaching, and assembly. 

6-4. LAND INSERTION 

Land insertion from a departure point to the target area sometimes may 
be the best (or only) way to accomplish a mission. Normally, this is 



6-7 



FM 23-10 



so when the enemy has total air superiority or has established effective 
air defenses. The sniper team can accomplish land insertions over any 
type of terrain, in any climate. However, thick forests, swamps, and 
broken or steep terrain probably offer the best chance of success. 

a. Planning. Plans for overland movement enable the sniper team 
to move to the target area with the least risk of detection. Planning 
considerations include the following 

(1) Selecting concealed primary and alternate routes based on detailed 
map reconnaissance and aerial photographs, ground reconnaissance, and 
data on the enemy situation from other sources. 

(2) Avoiding obstacles, populated areas, silhouetting enemy positions, 
main avenues of approach, and movements along heavily populated 
routes and trails. 

(3) Selecting the time of insertion to take advantage of reduced 
visibility and reduced alertness. The time is especially important during 
critical phases while passing through populated areas. 

(4) Knowing routes, rendezvous points (and alternates), time 
schedules, danger areas, and the enemy situation are critical to speed 
and stealth. 

(5) Providing centralized coordination to ensure that members act 
IAW cover and deception plans. Insertion by land is characterized by 
centralized planning and decentralized execution. 

b. Actions on Enemy Contact. Once beyond the FFL, the sniper 
team must be alert to avoid detection while en route to the target area. 
If the sniper team becomes aware of the enemy, it must try to move away 
without an alert. The sniper team fights only when there is no alternative. 
Then, it breaks contact as quickly as possible. Following enemy contact, 
the sniper contacts the SEO for a decision to abort or continue 
the mission. If continuing the mission, the sniper team may have to 
establish a temporary position for resupply, extraction, or evacuation 
of wounded. 

c. Stay-Behind Technique. The sniper team applies the stay-behind 
technique when the team moves with a security patrol. The team 
establishes an ORP, caches nonessential equipment, and changes into 
ghillie suits to prepare for movement to the TFFP. Once this is 
accomplished, the security patrol departs for a predetermined location to 
act as a quick-reaction force for the team or returns to its operational base. 
Use of this technique requires the following considerations: 

• Noise and light discipline. 

• Avoidance of enemy contact. 



6-8 



FM 23-10 

• Timing. 

• Rough, inaccessible terrain. 

• Medical evacuation. 

• Communications. 

• Method of extraction. 

• Evasion and escape. 

d. Actions at the Insertion. The sniper team develops a detailed 
assembly plan, basing it on the insertion method and the terrain at the 
insertion site. 

(1) The sniper team selects an assembly area that can be identified 
at night and is near the insertion site. It uses this assembly area if team 
members become separated during the insertion. During parachute 
insertion, the sniper team uses the assembly area as an assembly point. 

(2) The sniper team also designates an initial rally point that can be 
identified at night. The rally point is normally no closer than several 
hundred meters from the msertion site. The team uses the IRP for 
assembly if the insertion site is attacked either on insertion or shortly after 
departing the insertion site. 

(3) When the insertion is complete, the sniper team accounts for 
equipment and supplies, and ensures any injuries are treated. If a 
disabling injury occurs during insertion, the sniper must decide, based on 
guidance, whether to continue the mission or to request extraction. 

(4) The sniper team's most critical task is verifying the team's location. 
The sniper verifies his location at the insertion site or after moving away 
from the site. 

(5) The sniper team sterilizes the site and caches or discards 
nonessential equipment. The preferred method is to bury discards 
away from the insertion site. The sniper team must camouflage the 
cache site. 

(6) The sniper team departs the insertion site, then halts to listen for 
sounds of pursuit and to become familiar with local sounds. It establishes 
a primary azimuth and immediately begins information collection 
activities and map update. 

6-5. VEHICLE INSERTION 

Vehicle insertion uses wheeled or tracked vehicles to transport the sniper 
team to its insertion site. Wheeled or tracked vehicle insertion requires 
the same planning considerations used in other insertion techniques. 
The team risks compromise if it uses vehicle insertion beyond the FLOT 
due to noise. Enemy OPs and scout elements can easily detect and 



6-9 



FM 23-10 



prevent infiltration of the sniper team. However, this technique can be 
effectively used in support of immediate battle operations by using 
deceptive measures. 

Section II 
EXECUTION 

The execution phase consists of movement from the insertion site to the 
target area, mission execution, and movement to the extraction site. 

6-6. MOVEMENT TO TARGET AREA 

After leaving the insertion site, the sniper team transmits an initial entry 
report as required by unit SOP. This report ensures operable radio 
equipment and provides the team's status at the same time. 

a. Route Se ection. No matter which means of insertion, the selection 
of the route to the target area is critical. 

(1) Enemy location, detection devices, and defensive capabilities; 
terrain; weather; and man-made obstacles are all to be considered when 
selecting the primary and alternate routes. En route checkpoints are 
selected to keep track of the team. 

(2) The team uses NODs to operate during reduced visibility. 
The team's extensive training and land navigation skills allow it to rapidly 
traverse rugged terrain and to avoid detection. 

b. Movement Interval. The interval between sniper team members 
may vary during movement into the target area. It is based on visibility, 
terrain, and enemy disposition. The team keys movement to the 
following rules, which should be discussed in detail in the sniper SOP. 

(1) Maintain visual contact at a normal interval. (Intervals can 
expand and contract based on terrain and visibility.) 

(2) Always maintain noise and light discipline. 

(3) Observe the assigned sector of responsibility. 

(4) React together (for example, when one gets down, they both 
get down.) 

(5) Ensure the sniper team leader positions himself to the rear of 
the observer. 

(6) Move on routes that best conceal movement from enemy 
observation and cover movement from direct enemy fire. 

(7) Ensure the interval between members closes when moving 
through obstructions (darkness, smoke, heavy brush, narrow passes, and 
mine fields); ensure the interval opens when obstructions to movement 
and control lessen. 



6-10 



FM 23-10 



c. Movement Security. Each sniper team member must be security 
conscious, maintaining constant all-round security. During movement, 
each team member is responsible for an assigned security sector. 
The sniper team's route makes the best use of cover and concealment, and 
security or listening halts are made, as needed. Personal and equipment 
camouflage is enforced at all times. 

d. Arm-and-Hand Signals. The sniper establishes standard 
arm-and-hand signals to reduce oral communications and to assist 
in control. These signals should conform to those listed in FM 21-75 and 
the sniper SOP. 

6-7. OCCUPATION OF POSITION 

The tentative final firing position, ORP, and route are selected during the 
mission planning phase by map and aerial photograph reconnaissance. 
The sniper team moves close to the TFFP and sets up an objective 
rally point. It then moves forward to search for a TFFP, ensuring the site 
is suitable and the target area can be observed at ground level. At this 
point, the TFFP becomes an FFP. Reconnaissance should be made 
during limited visibility. The team returns to the ORP, secures all 
mission-essential equipment, and moves to the FFP and occupies it. 
The sniper team watches and listens for the enemy before constructing 
the hide position (METT-T dependent). 

6-8. SITE SELECTION 

Selection of the firing position is METT-T dependent. As a minimum, the 
sniper team uses the following criteria when selecting an FFP: 

a. Ensures that an unrestricted observation of the target area 
is possible. The team can then place the designated target area under 
constant, effective surveillance and within the range of RSTA devices and 
the sniper's weapon system. 

b. Selects an area that provides a concealed entrance and exit routes. 

c. Avoids man-made objects. 

d. Avoids dominant or unusual terrain features. 

e. Selects an area that is dry, or has good drainage and is not prone 
to flooding. 

f. Selects an area that the enemy would not occupy. 

g. Avoids the skyline or blending backgrounds, 
h. Avoids roads or trails. 

i. Avoids natural lines of movement (gullies, draws, or any terrain 
that affords easy foot movement). 

j. Selects an area in which the team cannot be easily trapped. 



6-11 



FM 23-10 



k. Ensures it has a natural obstacle to vehicles between the FFP and 
the target area, if possible (roadside ditch, fence, wall, stream, or river). 
1. Selects an area downwind of inhabited areas, if possible, 
m. Selects an area in or near a suitable communications site, 
n. Avoids the normal line of vision of the enemy in the target area, 
o. Selects an area near a source of water. 

6-9. REPORTS 

The sniper team follows the communications procedures as outlined in 
the unit SOP. The team members must ensure that communications are 
maintained throughout the mission by the use of directional antennas, 
masking, and burst transmissions. 

a. The sniper team does not analyze information it only collects and 
reports based on SIR. The team must format information reporting IAW 
the unit SOP and the type of communications equipment used. 

b. Other reports that the sniper team may use, such as emergency 
resupply, communication checks, and emergency extraction, should also 
be formatted IAW the SOP. 

6-10. MOVEMENT TO EXTRACTION SITE 

Movement to a planned extraction site will be necessary in many operations. 
The sniper team must observe the principles of route selection and 
movement security. 

a. Priorities. The time that a sniper team remains beyond the FFL 
depends on its mission and equipment. The extraction is critical from a 
standpoint of morale and mission accomplishment. Plans for extraction 
by air, ground, or water are made before the operation, with alternate 

Elans for contingencies such as the evacuation of sick or injured personnel, 
luring the mission, the sniper may be faced with an unforeseen situation 
that may demand the utmost in flexibility, discipline, and leadership. 

b. Code Words. Each sniper team is given code words in the OPORD 
for use during extraction. For example, one code word may mean that the 
team is at its pickup zone. Another may mean that both the primary and 
alternate pickup zones are compromised and to abort the extraction. 

c. No Communication. When a sniper team has missed a certain 
number of required transmissions, the operations section assumes that 
the team has a communications problem, is in trouble, or both. At that 
time, the no-communication extraction plan is used. 

d. Alternatives. Extraction of the sniper team may be by means 
other than air. The OPORD may specify to extract the team by land or 
water, or to link up with friendly forces in an offensive operation. Any of 



6-12 



FM 23-10 



these means may also be planned as alternates to avoid capture or if the 
sniper team cannot be extracted by air. 

e. Ground Extraction. Despite the desirability of extracting the 
team by aircraft or linkup, use of these methods may be prevented by 
security of the sniper team, poor communications, or enemy air defense. 
The sniper team must be thoroughly trained in exfiltration techniques so 
they can walk out, either one at a time or together. 

Section III 
EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY 

The sniper team performs an extraction as quickly as possible after the 
mission is accomplished. An extraction site is always planned and 
coordinated with supporting forces. However, the situation may dictate that 
the sniper decides whether to use the planned extraction site or to exfiltrate. 

6-11. PLANNING 

The sniper team must be prepared to exfiltrate over predetermined land 
routes to friendly lines as a team (or individually) or to exfiltrate to an 
area for extraction by air or water. Planning includes the following: 

a. Distance. Distance may prevent an all-land exfiltration. The initial 
phase may be by land, ending in extraction by air or water. 

b. Terrain. The terrain is important in selecting extraction means. 
The extraction site must offer favorable tactical considerations, tide data, 
PZ suitability, and cover from enemy direct-fire weapons. The sniper 
team uses the most unlikely terrain for extraction such as swamps, jungles, 
and mountain areas. 

c. Enemy. Enemy pressure can develop during the extraction. 
Detailed plans must be made for contingency exfiltrations forced by 
the enemy. 

d. Evasion and Escape. Preinsertion planning must include the 
development of a viable evasion and escape plan. The sniper team must 
do the following 

(1) Checks all factors that deal with survival and evasion opportunities. 

(2) Devises an evasion and escape plan that provides the best chance 
of survival and return to friendly lines in view of the hazards involved and 
mission objectives. 

(3) Becomes familiar with the evasion and escape plans. 

6-12. EVASION AND ESCAPE PLAN 

Each mission has its specific problems associated with evasion and escape. 
The plan must conform to these unique problems while exploitmg 



6-13 



FM 23-10 



individual abilities, training of sniper team members, and supporting air 
or boat crews. The following general rules apply to evasion and escape 
plans for sniper operations: 

a. The purpose of the plan is to attempt to save the individual who 
can no longer complete the assigned mission. 

b. When sniper teams are behind enemy lines, the most successful 
escapes may involve air or water movement away from enemy-held territory. 

c. Evasion and escape plans involve the following three phases: 

(1) Phase one occurs during entry into the target area. 

(2) Phase two occurs near the target area. It allows the sniper team 
to pursue its mission with a reasonable chance of success. 

(3) Phase three occurs after the mission is accomplished. It is often 
the most difficult time to evade and escape. 

d. The sniper team may be required to hide for several days to allow 
the enemy to become complacent before the team tries to move. 

e. In selecting extraction sites, the sniper considers the danger of 
compromising other activities. He must prepare alternate plans for 
unforeseen developments. 

6-13. AIR OR WATER EXTRACTION 

Extraction by air or water is favored when resources are available and 
when it will not compromise the mission. 

a. Other considerations that favor this method areas follows: 

(1) Long distances must be covered. 

(2) The time of return is essential. 

(3) The enemy does not have air and naval superiority. 

(4) Heavily populated hostile areas obstruct exfiltration. 

(5) The team cannot be resupplied. 

(6) Casualties must be extracted. 

b. Several techniques maybe used to extract the team. 

(1) Helicopter landing is the best method since the sniper team and 
its equipment can board the helicopter quickly. 

(2) The troop ladder is the second best method. It lets sniper team 
members board the helicopter, but the helicopter can liftoff while snipers 
are still on the ladder. 

(3) The STABO extraction system allows rapid pickup of one to four 
soldiers, who are suspended on lines beneath the helicopter. Soldiers are 
kicked up and moved to an area where the helicopter can land. The sniper 
:eam then boards the helicopter. 



6-14 



FM 23-10 



(4) The jungle penetrator retrieves soldiers from areas where 
helicopters cannot land. It can pickup 1 to 3 persons at a time. 

(5) The SPIES can extract soldiers from areas where helicopters 
cannot land. It can pickup 1 to 10 soldiers at a time. 

6-14. LAND EXFILTRATION 

This method is favored when snipers are not too far from friendly lines or 
no other means of extraction is available. It is also used when the terrain 
provides cover and concealment for foot movement and limits the 
employment of enemy mobile units against the exfiltrating team. 
Other considerations favoring this method are as follows: 

a. Areas along exfiltration routes are uninhabited. 

b. The enemy force is widely dispersed or is under such pressure that 
it is difficult for them to concentrate against the exfiltrating team. 

c. The enemy force can stop an air or water extraction. 

6-15. VEHICLE EXTRACTION 

Vehicle extraction involves the exfiltration of the sniper team to an 
extraction site for extraction by a wheeled or tracked vehicle. 
Planning and coordination must be made during the preinsertion phase. 
Contingency plans must also be made to avoid compromise or any 
unforeseen situations. 

6-16. RECOVERY 

Recovery is the last phase of a sniper operation. It consists of the sniper 
team's return to the operations base, debriefing, equipment maintenance 
and turn-in, and stand-down. At the end of this phase, the sniper team 
prepares for future missions. (See Chapter 5.) 



6-15 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 7 

COMMUNICATIONS 

The basic requirement of combat communications is to provide 
rapid, reliable, and secure interchange of information. 

Section I 
FIELD-EXPEDIENT ANTENNAS 

Communications are a vital aspect in successful mission accomplishment. 
The information in this section helps the sniper team maintain effective 
communications and correct any radio antenna problems. 

7-1. REPAIR TECHNIQUES 

Antennas are sometimes broken or damaged, causing either a 
communications failure or poor communications. If a spare antenna is 
available, the damaged antenna is replaced. When there is no spare, the 
sniper team may have to construct an emergency antenna. The following 
paragraphs contain suggestions for repairing antennas and antenna 
supports and the construction and adjustment of emergency antennas. 



DANGER 
SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH CAN RESULT FROM 
CONTACT WITH THE RADIATING ANTENNA OF A 
MEDIUM-POWER OR HIGH-POWER TRANSMITTER. 
TURN THE TRANSMITTER OFF WHILE MAKING 
ADJUSTMENTS TO THE ANTENNA. 



a. Whip Antennas. When a whip antenna is broken into two 
sections, the part of the antenna that is oroken off can be connected to 
the part attached to the base by joining the sections. (Use the method 



7-1 



FM 23-10 



shown in A, Figure 7-1, when both parts of the broken whip are available 
and usable.) (Use the method in B, Figure 7-1, when the part of the whip 
that was broken off is lost or when the whip is so badly damaged that it 
cannot be used.) To restore the antenna to its original length, a piece of 
wire is added that is nearly the same length as the missing part of the whip. 
The pole support is then lashed securely to both sections of the antenna. 
The two antenna sections are cleaned thoroughly to ensure good contact 
before connecting them to the pole support. If possible, the connections 
are soldered. 



BREAK- 




POLE OR BRANCH 



LASHING 



ELECTRICAL 
CONNECTIONS 



LASHING 




,ANTENNA 
WIRE 

BREAK 



Figure 7-1 . Emergency repair of broken whip antenna. 

b. Wire Antennas. Emergency repair of a wire antenna may involve 
the repair or replacement of the wire used as the antenna or transmission 
line; or the repair or replacement of the assembly used to support 
the antenna. 

(1) When one or more wires of an antenna are broken, the antenna 
can be repaired by reconnecting the broken wires. To do this, lower the 
antenna to the ground, clean the ends of the wires, and twist the 
wires together. Whenever possible, solder the connection. 



7-2 



FM 23-10 



(2) If the antenna is damaged beyond repair, construct a new one. 
Make sure that the length of the wires of the substitute antenna are the 
same length as those or the original. 

(3) Antenna supports may also require repair or replacement. 
A substitute item may be used in place of a damaged support and, if 
properly insulated, can be of any material of adequate strength. If the 
radiating element is not properly insulated, field antennas may be shorted 
to ground and be ineffective. Many commonly found items can be used 
as field-expedient insulators. The best of these items are plastic or glass 
to include plastic spoons, buttons, bottle necks, and plastic bags. 
Though less effective than plastic or glass but still better than no insulator 
at all are wood and rope. The radiating element— the actual antenna 
wire-should touch only the antenna terminal and should be physically 
separated from all other objects, other than the supporting insulator. 
(See Figure 7-2 for various methods of making emergency insulators.) 



PLASTIC SPOON 



RUBBER OR CLOTH STRIP (DRY) 



WOODjDRY) 

US 




BEST: PLASTIC, GLASS 



GOOD: WOOD 



FAIR: CLOTH, ROPE 



Figure 7-2. Improvised Insulators. 

7-2. CONSTRUCTION AND ADJUSTMENT 

Sniper teams may use the following methods to construct and 
adjust antennas. 

a. Construction. The best kinds of wire for antennas are copper and 
aluminum. In an emergency, however, snipers use any type of wire that 
is available. 



7-3 



FM 23-10 



(1) The exact length of most antennas is critical. The emergency 
antenna should be the same length as the antenna it replaces. 

(2) Antennas supported by trees can usually survive heavy wind 
storms if the trunk of a tree or a strong branch is used as a support. 
To keep the antenna taut and to prevent it from breaking or stretching as 
the trees sway, the sniper attaches a spring or old inner tube to one end 
of the antenna. Another technique is to pass a rope through a pulley 
or eyehook. The rope is attached to the end of the antenna and loaded 
with a heavyweight to keep the antenna tightly drawn. 

(3) Guidelines used to hold antenna supports are made of rope 
or wire. To ensure the guidelines will not affect the operation of the 
antenna, the sniper cuts the wire into several short lengths and connects 
the pieces with insulators. 

b. Adjustment. An improvised antenna may change the performance 
of a radio set. The following methods can be used to determine if the 
antenna is operating properly 

(1) A distant station may be used to test the antenna. If the signal 
received from this station is strong, the antenna is operating satisfactorily. 
If the signal is weak, the sniper adjusts the height and length of the antenna 
and the transmission line to receive the strongest signal at a given setting 
on the volume control of the receiver. This is the best method of tuning 
an antenna when transmission is dangerous or forbidden. 

(2) In some radio sets, the sniper uses the transmitter to adjust 
the antenna. First, he sets the controls of the transmitter to normal; then, 
he tunes the system by adjusting the antenna height, the antenna length, 
and the transmission line length to obtain the best transmission output. 

7-3. FIELD-EXPEDIENT OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS 

Vertical antennas are omnidirectional. The omnidirectional antenna 
transmits and receives equally well in all directions. Most tactical 
antennas are vertical; for example, the man-pack portable radio uses a 
vertical whip and so do the vehicular radios in tactical vehicles. A vertical 
antenna can be made by using a metal pipe or rod of the correct length, 
held erect by means of guidelines. The lower end of the antenna should 
be insulated from the ground by placing it on a large block of wood or 
other insulating material. A verticalantenna may also be a wire 
supported by a tree or a wooden pole (Figure 7-3). For short vertical 
antennas, the pole may be used without guidelines (if properly supported 
at the base). If the length of the vertical mast is not long enough to 
support the wire upright, it may be necessary to modify the connection at 
the top of the antenna (Figure 7-4). (See FM 24-18.) 



7-4 



FM 23-10 




Figure 7-3. Field substitutes for support of vertical 
wire antennas. 




Figure 7-4. Additional means of supporting vertical 
wire antennas. 

a. End-Fed Half-Wave Antenna. An emergency, end-fed half -wave 
antenna (Figure 7-5, page 7-6) can be constructed from available materials 
such as field wire, rope, and wooden insulators. The electrical length of 



7-5 



FM 23-10 



this antenna is measured from the antenna terminal on the radio set to 
the far end of the antenna. The best performance can be obtained by 
constructing the antenna longer than necessary and then shortening it, as 
required, until the best results are obtained. The ground terminal of the 
radio set should be connected to a good earth ground for this antenna to 
function efficiently. 




Figure 7-5. End-fed half-wave antenna. 

b. Center-Fed Doublet Antenna. The center-fed doublet is a 
half-wave antenna consisting of two quarter wavelength sections on each 
side of the center (Figure 7-6). Doublet antennas are directional 
broadside to their length, which makes the vertical doublet antenna 
omnidirectional. This is oecause the radiation pattern is doughnut-shaped 
and bidirectional. 



7-6 



FM 23-10 




Figure 7-6. Center-fed half-wave doublet antenna. 



(1) Compute the length of a half -wave antenna by using the formula 
in paragraph 7-5. Cut the wires as close as possible to the correct length; 
this is very important. 

(2) Uses transmission line for conducting electrical energy from one 
point to another and for transferring the output of a transmitter to 
an antenna. Although it is possible to connect an antenna directly to a 
transmitter, the antenna is usually located some distance away. 

(3) Support center-fed half-wave FM antennas entirely with pieces 
of wood. (A horizontal antenna of this type is shown in A, Figure 1-1 , 
page 7-8, and a vertical antenna in B, Figure 1-1.) Rotate these antennas 
to any position to obtain the best performance. 

(a) If the antenna is erected vertically, bring out the transmission line 
horizontally from the antenna for a distance equal to at least one-half of 
the antenna's length before it is dropped down to the radio set. 

(b) The half-wave antenna is used with FM radios (Figure 7-8, 
?age 7-8). It is effective in heavily wooded areas to increase the range of 
Portable radios. Connect the top guidelines to a limb or pass it over the 
imb and connect it to the tree trunk or a stake. 



7-7 



FM 23-10 



INSULATORS 



INSULATOR 






JF? 



1/4 
WAVELENGTH 



1/4 
WAVELENGTH 



TRANSMISSION 
LINE 



t=a 



nf 



B 



jf 



HORIZONTALLY 
POLARIZED 



VERTICALLY 
POLARIZED 



Figure 7-7. Center-fed half-wave antenna, supported. 

JffW 




INSULATORS 



GROUND 
STAKE 




INSULATOR — 



ANTENNA 
WIRE 



GROUND 
STAKE 



Figure 7-8. Improvised vertical half-wave antenna. 



7-8 



FM 23-10 



7-4. FIELD-EXPEDIENT DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS 
The vertical half-rhombic antenna (Figure 7-9) and the long- wire 
antenna (Figure 7-10) are two field-expedient directional antennas. 
These antennas consist of a single wire, preferably two or more 
wavelengths long, supported on poles at a height of 3 to 7 meters (10 to 
20 feet) above the ground. The antennas will, however, operate 
satisfactorily as low as 1 meter (about 3 feet) above the ground— the 
radiation pattern is directional. The antennas are used mainly for either 
transmitting or receiving high-frequency signals. 




Figure 7-9. Verticle half-rhombic antenna. 



FIELD WIRE, 
LENGTH: 18 TO 33 METERS 
HEIGHT: 3.5 TO 4.5 METERS 
ABOVE GROUND 



500 TO 600 

OHM 
CARBON 
RESISTOR 




GROUND LINE TO RADIO 



Figure 7-1 0. Long-wire antenna. 



7-9 



FM 23-10 



a. The V antenna (Figure 7-11) is another field-expedient directional 
antenna. It consists of two wires forming a V with the open area of the V 
pointing toward the desired direction of transmission or reception. 
To make construction easier, the legs should slope downward from the 
apex of the V; this is called a sloping-V antenna (Figure 7-12). The angle 
between the legs varies with the length of the legs to achieve maximum 
performance, (to determine the angle and the length of the legs, use the 
table in Table 7-1.) 

b. When the antenna is used with more than one frequency or 
wavelength, use an apex angle that is midway between the extreme angles 
determined by the chart. To make the antenna radiate in only one 
direction, add noninductive terminating resistors from the end of each leg 
(not at the apex) to ground. (See TM 11-666.) 



INSULATORS 




Figure 7-1 1. V antenna. 



7-10 



FM 23-10 



RESISTORS 




Figure 7-12. Sloplng-V antenna. 



ANTENNA LENGTH 


OPTIMUM APEX ANGLE 


(wavelength) 


(degrees) 


1 


90 


2 


70 


3 


58 


4 


50 


6 


40 


8 


35 


10 


33 



Table 7-1 . Leg angle for V antennas. 



7-11 



FM 23-10 



7-5. ANTENNA LENGTH 

The length of an antenna must be considered in two ways: both a physical 
and an electrical length. These two lengths are never the same. The 
reduced velocity of the wave on the antenna and a capacitive effect (known 
as end effect) make the antenna seem longer electrically than it is 
physically. The contributing factors are the ratio of the diameter of the 
antenna to its length and the capacitive effect of terminal equipment, such 
as insulators and clamps, used to support the antenna. 

a. To calculate the physical length of an antenna, use a correction of 
0.95 for frequencies between 3.0 and 50.0 MHz The figures given below 
are for a half-wave antenna. 



Length (meters) 150 x 0.95 = 142.5 

Frequency in MHz Frequency in MHz 

Length (feet) = 492 X 0.95 468 

Frequency in MHz Frequency in MHz 

b. Use the folio wine formula to calculate the length of a long- wire 
antenna (one wavelength or longer) for harmonic operation: 

Length (meters) = 150 (N-0.05) 

Frequency in MHz 

Length (feet) = 492 (N-0.05) 
Frequency in MHz 



N equals the number of half-wavelengths in the total length of the 
antenna. For example, if the number of half-wavelengths is 3 and 
the frequency in MHz is 7, then- 



Length (meters) = 150(N-0.05) = 1 50(3-.05 ) = 
Frequency in MHz 7 

150 X 2.95 = 442.50 = 63.2 meters 



7-12 



FM 23-10 



7-6. ANTENNA ORIENTATION 

If the azimuth of the radio path is not provided, the azimuth should be 
determined by the best available means. The accuracy required in 
determining the azimuth of the path depends on the radiation pattern of 
the directional antenna. In transportable operation, the rhombic and V 
antennas may have such a narrow beam as to require great accuracy in 
azimuth determination. The antenna should be erected for the 
correct azimuth. Great accuracy is not required in erecting broad-beam 
antennas. Unless a line of known azimuth is available at the site, the 
direction of the path is best determined by a magnetic compass. 

7-7. IMPROVEMENT OF MARGINAL COMMUNICATIONS 

Under certain situations, it may not be feasible to orient directional 
antennas to the correct azimuth of the desired radio path. As a result, 
marginal communications may suffer. To improve marginal communi- 
cations, the following procedure can be used: 

a. Check, tighten, and tape cable couplings and connections. 

b. Return all transmitters and receivers in the circuit. 

c. Ensure antennas are adjusted for the proper operating frequency. 

d. Change the heights of antennas. 

e. Move the antenna a short distance away and in different locations 
from its original location. 

Section II 
RADIO OPERATIONS UNDER UNUSUAL CONDITIONS 

The possibility of being deployed to different parts of the world presents 
many problems for the sniper team due to extremes in climate and terrain. 
This section informs the sniper team of these common problems and 
possible solutions to eliminate or reduce adverse effects. 

7-8. ARCTIC AREAS 

Single-channel radio equipment has certain capabilities and limitations 
that must be carefully considered when operating in cold areas. 
However, in spite of limitations, radio is the normal means of commun- 
ications in such areas. One of the most important capabilities of the radio in 
Arctic-like areas is its versatility. Man-packed radios can be carried to any 
point accessible by foot or aircraft. A limitation on radio communications 
that radio operators must expect in extremely cold areas is interference by 
ionospheric disturbances. These disturbances, known as ionospheric 
storms, have a definite degrading effect on skywave propagation. Moreover, 
either the storms or the auroral (such as northern lights) activity can cause 
complete failure of radio communications. Some frequencies may be 



7-13 



FM 23-10 

blocked completely by static for extended periods during storm activity. 
Fading, caused by changes in the density and height of the ionosphere, can 
also occur and may last from minutes to weeks. The occurrence of these 
disturbances is difficult to predict. When they occur, the use of alternate 
frequencies and a greater reliance on FM or other means of communications 
are required. 

a. Antenna Installation. Antenna installation in Arctic-like areas 
presents no serious problems. However, installing some antennas may 
take longer because of adverse working conditions. Some suggestions for 
installing antennas in extremely cold areas areas follows: 

(1) Antenna cables must be handled carefully since they become 
brittle in low temperatures. 

(2) Whenever possible, antenna cables should be constructed 
overhead to prevent damage from heavy snow and frost. Nylon rope 
guidelines, if available, should be used in preference to cotton or hemp 
because nylon ropes do not readily absorb moisture and are less likely to 
freeze and break. 

(3) An antenna should have extra guidelines, supports, and anchor 
stakes to strengthen it to withstand heavy ice and wind. 

(4) Some radios (usually older generation radios) adjusted to a 
specific frequency in a relatively warm place may drift off frequency when 
exposed to extreme cold. Low battery voltage can also cause frequency drift. 
When possible, a radio should warmup several minutes before placing it 
into operation. Since extreme cold tends to lower output voltage of a dry 
battery, warming the battery with body heat before operating the radio set 
can reduce frequency drift. 

(5) Flakes or pellets of highly electrically charged snow is sometimes 
experienced in northern regions. When these particles strike the 
antenna, the resulting electrical discharge causes a high-pitched static 
roar that can blanket all frequencies. To overcome this static, antenna 
elements can be covered with polystyrene tape and shellac. 

b. Maintenance Improvement in Arctic Areas. The maintenance of 
radio equipment in extreme cold presents many problems. Radio sets 
must be protected from blowing snow since snow will freeze to dials and 
knobs and blow into the wiring to cause shorts and grounds. Cords must 
be handled carefully as they may lose their flexibility in extreme cold. 
All radio equipment must be properly winterized. The appropriate 
technical manual should be checked for winterization procedures. 
Some suggestions for maintenance in Arctic areas include: 

(1) Batteries. The effect of cold weather conditions on wet and dry 
cell batteries depends on the following factors: the type and kind of 



7-14 



FM 23-10 



battery, the load on the battery, the specific use of the battery, and the 
degree of exposure to cold temperatures. 

(2) Wnterization. The radio set technical manual should rechecked for 
special precautions for operation in extremely cold climates. For example, 
normal lubricants may solidify and cause damage or malfunctions. 
They must be replaced with the recommended Arctic lubricants. 

(3) Microphone. Moisture from the sniper's breath may freeze on the 
perforated cover plate of his microphone. Standard microphone covers 
can be used to prevent this. If standard covers are not available, a suitable 
cover can be improvised from rubber or cellophane membranes or from 
rayon or nylon cloth. 

(4) Breathing and sweating. A radio set generates heat when it 
is operated. When turned off, the air inside the radio set cools and 
contracts, and draws cold air into the set from the outside. This is 
called breathing. When a radio breathes and the still-hot parts come in 
contact with subzero air, the glass, plastic, and ceramic parts of the set may 
cool too rapidly and break. When cold equipment is brought suddenly 
into contact with warm air, moisture condenses on the equipment parts. 
This is called sweating. Before cold equipment is brought into a heated 
area, it should be wrapped in a blanket or parka to ensure that it warms 
gradually to reduce sweating. Equipment must be thoroughly dry before 
it is taken into the cold air or the moisture will freeze. 

7-9. JUNGLE AREAS 

Radio communications in jungle areas must be carefully planned, because 
the dense jungle growth reduces the range of radio transmission. 
However, since single-channel radio can be deployed in many 
configurations, especially man-packed, it is a valuable communications 
asset. The capabilities and limitations of single-channel radio must be 
carefully considered when used by forces in a jungle environment. 
The mobility and various configurations in which a single-channel radio 
can be deployed are its main advantages in jungle areas. Limitations on 
radio communications in jungle areas are due to the climate and the 
density of jungle growth. The hot and humid climate increases 
maintenance problems of keeping the equipment operable. Thick jungle 
growth acts as a vertically polarized absorbing screen for radio frequency 
energy that, in effect, reduces transmission range. Therefore, increased 
emphasis on maintenance and antenna siting is a must when operating in 
jungle areas. 

a. Jungle Operational Techniques. The main problem in establishing 
radio communications in jungle areas is the siting of the antenna. 



7-15 



FM 23-10 

The following techniques can be applied to improve communications in 
the jungle: 

(1) Locate antennas in clearings on the edge farthest from the distant 
station and as high as possible. 

(2) Keep antenna cables and connectors off the ground to lessen the 
effects of moisture, fungus, and insects. This also applies to all power and 
telephone cables. 

(3) Use complete antenna systems, such as ground planes and 
dipoles, for more effect than fractional wavelength whip antennas. 

(4) Clear vegetation from antenna sites. If an antenna touches any 
foliage, especially wet foliage, the signal will be grounded. 

(5) When wet, vegetation acts like a vertically polarized screen and 
absorbs much of a vertically polarized signal. Use horizontally polarized 
antennas in preference to vertically polarized antennas. 

b. Maintenance Improvement in the Jungle. Due to moisture and 
fungus, the maintenance of radio sets in tropical climates is more difficult 
than intemperate climates The high relative humidity causes condensation 
to form on the equipment and encourages the growth of fungus. 
Operators and maintenance personnel should check appropriate technical 
manuals for special maintenance requirements. Some techniques for 
improving maintenance in jungle areas follow: 

(1) Keep the equipment as dry as possible and in lighted areas to 
retard fungus growth. 

(2) Clear all air vents of obstructions so air can circulate to cool and 
dry the equipment. 

(3) Keep connectors, cables, and bare metal parts as free of fungus 
growth as possible. 

(4) Use moisture and fungus-proofing paint to protect equipment 
after repairs are made or when equipment is damaged or scratched. 

c. Expedient Antennas. Sniper teams can improve their ability to 
communicate in the jungle by using expedient antennas. While moving, the 
team is usually restricted to using the short and long antennas that come 
with the radios. However, when not moving, snipers can use these 
expedient antennas to broadcast farther and to receive more clearly. 
However, an antenna that is not "tuned" or "cut" to the operating 
frequency is not as effective as the whips that are supplied with the radio. 
Circuits inside the radio "load" the whips properly so that they are "tuned" 
to give the greatest output. Whips are not as effective as a tuned doublet 
or tuned ground plane (namely RC 292-type), but the doublet or ground 



7-16 



FM 23-10 



plane must be tuned to the operating frequency. This is especially critical 
with low-power radios such as the AN/PRC-77. 

(1) Expedient 292-type antenna. The expedient 292-type antenna 
was developed for use in the jungle and, if used properly, can increase 
the team's ability to communicate. In its entirety, the antenna is bulky, 
heavy, and not acceptable for sniper team operations. The team can, 
however, carry only the mast head and antenna sections, mounting 
these on wood poles or hanging them from trees; or, the team can make 
a complete expedient 292-type antenna (Figure 7-13, page 7-18), using 
WD-1, wire, and other readily available material. The team can also 
use almost any plastic, glass, or rubber objects for insulators. Dry 
wood is acceptable when nothing else is available. (See Figure 7-2 for 
types of insulators that may be used.) The following describes how to 
make this antenna: 

(a) Use the quick-reference table (Table 7-2, page 7-19) to determine 
the length of the elements (one radiating and three ground planes) for the 
frequency that will be used. Cut these elements (A, Figure 7-13, 
page 7-18) from WD-1 field wire (or similar wire). Cut spacing sticks 
IB, Figure 7-13) the same length. Place the ends of the sticks together to 
form a triangle and tie the ends with wire, tape, or rope. Attach an 
insulator to each comer. Attach a ground-plane wire to each insulator. 
Bring the other ends of the ground-plane wires together, attach them to 
an insulator (C, Figure 7-13, page 7-18), and tie securely. Strip about 
3 inches of insulation from each wire and twist them together. 

(b) Tie one end of the radiating element wire to the other side of 
insulator C and the other end to another insulator (D, Figure 7-13). 
Strip about 3 inches of insulation from the radiating element at 
insulator C. 

(c) Cut enough WD-1 field wire to reach from the proposed location 
of the antenna to the radio set. Keep this line as short as possible, because 
excess length reduces the efficiency of the system. Tie a knot at each end 
to identify it as the "hot" lead. Remove insulation from the "hot" wire 
and tie it to the radiating element wire at insulator C. Remove insulation 
from the other wire and attach it to the bare ground-plane element wires 
at insulator C. Tape all connections and do not allow the radiating 
element wire to touch the ground-plane wires. 

(d) Attach a rope to the insulator on the free end of the radiating 
element and toss the rope over the branches of a tree. Pull the antenna 
as high as possible, keeping the lead-in routed down through the triangle. 
Secure the rope to hold the antenna in place. 



7-17 



FM 23-10 

(e) At the radio set, remove about 1 inch of insulation from the "hot" 
lead and about 3 inches of insulation from the other wire. Attach the 
"hot" line to the antenna terminal (doublet connector, if so labeled). 
Attach the other wire to the metal case-the handle, for example. Be sure 
both connections are tight or secure. 

(f) Set up correct frequency, turn on the set, and proceed with 
communications. 




3 SPACING STICKS 



Figure 7-13. Expedient 292-type antenna. 



(2) Expedient patrol antenna. This is another antenna that is easy 
to carry and quick to set up (Figure 7-14, page 7-20). The two radiating 
wires are cut to the length shown in table 7-2 for the operating 
frequency. For the best results, the lead-in should extend at least 1.8 
meters (6 feet) at right angles (plus or minus 30 degrees) to the 
antenna section before dropping to the radio set. The easiest way to 
set up this antenna is to measure the length of the radiating elements 
from one end of the lead-in (WD-1) ana tie a knot at that point. The 
two wires are separated: one is lifted vertically by a rope and insulator; 



7-18 



FM 23-10 



the other is held down by a rock or other weight and a rope and insulator. 
The antenna should be as high as possible. The other end of the 
lead-in is attached to the radio set as described in paragraph 7-9c(l), 
expedient 292-type antenna. 



OPERATING 

FREQUENCY 

IN MHz 


ELEMENT LENGTH 

(radiating element and 

ground-plane elements) 


30 


2.38m (7 ft 10 in) 


32 


2.23m (7 ft 4 in) 


34 


2.1m (6 ft 11 in) 


36 


1.98m (6 ft 6 in) 


38 


1.87m (6 ft 2 in) 


40 


1.78m (5 ft 10 in) 


43 


1.66m (5 ft 5 in) 


46 


1.55m (5 ft 1 in) 


49 


1.46m (4 ft 9 in) 


52 


1.37m (4 ft 6 in) 


55 
58 


1.3m (4 ft 3 in) 
1.23m (4 ft in) 


61 


1.17m (3 ft 10 in) 


64 


1.12m (3ft 8 in) 


68 
72 


1.05m (3 ft 5 in) 
.99m (3 ft 3 in) 


76 


.94m (3 ft 1 in) 



Table 7-2. Quick-reference chart. 



7-19 



FM 23-10 




GROUND 
STAKE 



Figure 7-14. Expedient patrol antenna. 

7-10. DESERT AREAS 

Radio is usually the primary means of communications in the desert. It can 
be employed effectively in desert climate and terrain to provide a highly 
mobile means of communications demanded by widely dispersed forces. 

a. Techniques for Better Operations. For the best operation in the 
desert, radio antennas should be located on the highest terrain available. 
In the desert, transmitters using whip antennas lose one-fifth to one-third 
of their normal range due to the poor electrical grounding common to desert 
terrain. For this reason, complete antenna systems must be used such as 
horizontal dipoles and vertical antennas with adequate counterpoises. 

b. Equipment Considerations. Some radios automatically switch on 
their second blower fan if their internal temperature rises too high. 
Normally, this happens only in temperate climates when the radios 
are transmitting. This may disturb soldiers unaccustomed to radio 
operation in the desert environment. Operation of the second fan, 
however, is quite normal. Radio frequency power amplifiers used in AM 
and single sideband sets may overheat and burn out. Such equipment 
should be turned on only when necessary (signal reception is not affected). 
Since the RF power amplifiers take about 90 seconds to reach the 
operating mode, the SOP of units using the equipment allows for delays 
in replying. Dust affects communications equipment such as SSB/AMRF 



7-20 



FM 23-10 



power amplifiers and radio teletypewriter sets. Radio teletypewriter sets 
are prone to damage due to the vulnerability of the oil lubrication system, 
which attracts and holds dust particles. Dust covers, therefore, should be 
used when possible. Some receiver-transmitter units have ventilating 
ports and channels that can get clogged with dust. These must be checked 
regularly and kept clean to prevent overheating. 

c. Batteries. Dry battery supplies must be increased, since hot 
weather causes batteries to fail more rapidly. 

d. Electrical Insulation. Wind-blown sand and grit damage 
electrical wire insulation over time. All cables that are likely to oe 
damaged should be protected with tape before insulation becomes worn. 
Sand also finds its way into parts of items, such as "spaghetti cord" plugs, 
either preventing electrical contact or making it impossible to join the 
plugs together. A orush, such as an old toothbrush, should be carried and 
used to clean such items before they are joined. 

e. Condensation. In deserts with relatively high dew levels and high 
humidity, overnight condensation can occur wherever surfaces are cooler 
than the air temperature, such as metals exposed to air. This condensation 
can affect electrical plugs, jacks, and connectors. All connectors likely to 
be affected by condensation should be taped to prevent moisture from 
contaminating the contacts. Plugs should be dried before inserting them 
into equipment jacks. Excessive moisture or dew should be dried from 
antenna connectors to prevent arcing. 

f. Static Electricity. Static electricity is prevalent in the desert. It is 
caused by many factors, one of which is wind-blown dust particles. 
Extremely low humidity contributes to static discharges between charged 
particles. Poor grounding conditions aggravate the problem. All sharp 
edges (tips) of antennas should be taped to reduce wind-caused static 
discharges and the accompanying noise. If operating from a fixed 
position, teams ensure that equipment is properly grounded. 
Since static-caused noise lessens with an increase mfrequency, the highest 
frequencies that are available and authorized should be used. 

g. Maintenance Improvement. In desert areas, the maintenance of 
radio sets becomes more difficult due to the large amounts of sand, dust, or 
dirt that enter the equipment. Sets equipped with servomechanisms are 
especially affected. To reduce maintenance downtime, the team must keep 
sets in dustproof containers as much as possible. Air vent filters should also 
be kept clean to allow cool air to circulate to prevent overheating. Preventive 
maintenance checks should be made often. Also, the team should closely 
check the lubricated parts of the equipment. If dust and dirt mix with the 
lubricants, moving parts may be damaged. 



7-21 



FM 23-10 

7-11. MOUNTAINOUS AREAS 

Operation of radios in mountainous areas have many of the same 
problems as in northern or cold weather areas. The mountainous terrain 
makes the selection of transmission sites a critical task In addition, terrain 
restrictions often require radio relay stations for good communications. 
Due to terrain obstacles, radio transmissions often have to be by line 
of sight. Also, the ground in mountainous areas is often a poor electrical 
conductor. Thus, a complete antenna system, such as a dipole or 
ground-plane antenna with a counterpoise, should be used. 
The maintenance procedures required in mountainous areas are the same 
as for northern or cold weather areas. The varied or seasonal temperature 
and climatic conditions in mountainous areas make flexible maintenance 
planning a necessity. 

7-12. URBANIZED TERRAIN 

Radio communications in urbanized terrain pose special problems. 
Some problems are similar to those encountered in mountainous areas. 
Some problems include obstacles blocking transmission paths, poor 
electrical conductivity due to pavement surfaces, and commercial power 
line interference. 

a. Very high frequency radios are not as effective in urbanized terrain 
as they are in other areas. The power output and operating frequencies 
of these sets require a line of sight between antennas. Line of sight at 
street level is not always possible in built-up areas. 

b. High frequency radios do not require or rely on line of sight as 
much as VHF radios. This is due to operating frequencies being lower 
and power output being greater. The problem is that HF radio sets are 
not organic to small units. To overcome this, the VHF signals must 
be retransmitted. 

c. Retransmission stations in aerial platforms can provide the most 
effective means if available. Organic retransmission is more likely to 
be used. The antenna should be hidden or blended in with surroundings. 
This helps prevent the enemy from using it as a landmark to "home in" 
his artillery bombardment. Antennas can be concealed by water towers, 
existing civilian antennas, or steeples. 

7-13. NUCLEAR BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT 

One of the realities of fighting on today's battlefield is the presence of 
nuclear weapons. Most soldiers are aware of the effects of nuclear blast, 
heat, and radiation. The ionization of the atmosphere by a nuclear 



7-22 



FM 23-10 



explosion will have degrading effects on communications due to static and 
the disruption of the ionosphere. 

a. Electromagnetic pulse results from a nuclear explosion and 
presents a great danger to our radio communications. An EMP is a strong 
pulse of electromagnetic radiation, many times stronger than the static 
pulse generated by lightning. This pulse can enter the radio through the 
antenna system, power connections, and signal input connections. In the 
equipment, the pulse can break down circuit components such as 
transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits. It can melt capacitors, 
inductors, and transformers, destroying a radio. 

b. Defensive measures against EMP call for proper maintenance, 
especially the shielding of equipment. When the equipment is not in use, 
alt antennas and cables should Tbe removed to decrease the effect of EMP 
on the equipment. 

Section III 
COMMUNICATIONS FORMATS 

Timely, accurate information reporting reduces the unknown aspects of 
the enemy and the area of operations, contributing to the commander's 
risk assessment and successful application of combat power. This section 
provides the sniper team with a means of organized and rapid information 
delivery through reporting formats. 

7-14. SPOT REPORT 

This paragraph complies with STANAG 2022. 

The sniper team uses the SPOTREP to report intelligence information. 
Each report normally describe a single observed event. When reporting 
groups of enemy vehicles, personnel report the location of the center of 
mass or indicate "from— to" coordinates. Higher headquarters sets the 
SPOTREP format, but the report usually follows the SALUTE format. 

LINE 1 The size of the enemy force observed. 

LINE 2 What the enemy was doing. 

LINE 3 Where the enemy was located. 

LINE 4 The unit to which the enemy belongs specified by markings 
on vehicles, distinctive features on uniforms, or special 
equipment that may identify the type enemy unit. 

LINE 5 Time the enemy was observed. 



7-23 



FM 23-10 

LINE 6 Equipment the enemy carried, wore, or used. 

Example: "C12, THIS IS STRIKER 1, SPOTREP, OVER." 
"STRIKER 1, THIS IS C12 SEND MESSAGE, OVER." 
"C12, THIS IS STRIKER 1. LINE 1: 3. LINE 2 MOVING IN A 
WESTERLY DIRECTION. LINE 3: GL024396. LINE 4: 
UNKNOWN. LINE 5: 2709911437. LINE 6: 1 SVD WITH PSO-1 
TELESCOPE. CAMOUFLAGED OVERGARMENT AND 
RUCKSACK TWO INDIVIDUALS CARRYING AKM-74 RIFLES. 
9-MM MAKAROV PISTOLS WITH SHOULDER HOLSTERS AND 
RUCKSACKS." 

7-15. SITUATION REPORT 

This paragraph complies with STANAG 2020. 

The sniper team submits the SITREP to higher headquarters to report 
tactical situations and status. The team submits the report daily by 
0600 hours after significant events or as otherwise required by the SEO 
or commander. The sender says, "SITREP," to alert the receiver of the 
type of report being sent. The following explains the reporting format 
according to line number: 

LINE 1 Report as of date-time group. 

LINE 2 Brief summary of enemy activity, casualties inflicted, prisoners 
captured. 

LINE 3 Your location (encrypted— if not using secure communications). 

LINE 4 Combat vehicles, operational. 

a. Improved TOW vehicle. 

b. M3 Bradley/M113A1. 

c. Ml. 

d. M60A3 tanks. 

e. M106A1 mortar carriers. 

f. Armored vehicle launched bridges (A VLB). 
LINE 5 Defensive obstacles encoded. 

a. Coordinates of mine fields. 

b. Coordinates of demolitions executed. 

c. Coordinates of reserve demolition targets. 



7-24 



FM 23-10 

LINE 6 Personnel strength. 

a. Green (full strength, 90 percent or better on hand). 

b. Amber (reduced strength, 80 to 89 percent on hand). 

c. Red (reduced strength, 60 to 79 percent on hand, mission-capable). 

d. Black (reduced strength, 59 percent or lesson hand). 
LINE 7 Class III and V for combat vehicles. 

a. Ammunition— green, amber, red, or black. 

b. Fuel— green, amber, red, or black. 
LINE 8 Summary of tactical intentions. 

Example: "RED 1, THIS IS RED 5; BLUE 2. LINE 1: 062230. LINE 2: 
NEGATIVE CONTACT. LINE 3: 1 SET ES, STA NEL. LINE 4B: 1. 
LINE 5: ABATIS, 1 SET XB, RDJ ALT. LINE 6: GREEN. LINE 7A: 
GREEN. LINE 7B: AMBER. LINE 8: CONTINUING MISSION." 

7-16. RECONNAISSANCE REPORT 

This paragraph complies with STANAG 2096. 

Due to the length and detail of a reconnaissance report, it should be 
sent by messenger rather than transmitted by radio. Graphic overlays 
and sketches are normally included with the report. The following 
explains the reporting format according to line number: 

LINE 1 OR HEADING (collection data). 

a. DTG information collected. 

b. DTG information received. 

c. Reporting unit. 

LINE 2 OR 3 CAPITAL ROUTE CLASSIFICATION (data for a 
route classification). 

a. Start point. 

b. Checkpoint/release point. 

c. Classification (code). 

d. Trafficability (code). 

e. Movement (code). 

f. Location of critical points. 



7-25 



FM 23-10 

LINE 3 OR BRIDGE CLASSIFICATION (data for a bridge 
classification). 

a. Location. 

b. One-way class. 

c. Two-way class. 

d. Overhead clearance. 

e. Bypass location. 

f. Bypass (code). 

g. Slope of entry bank, 
h. Slope of exit bank. 

LINE 4 OR FORDING/SWIM SITE (data for a ford or swim site). 

a. Location. 

b. Velocity (water speed). 

c. Depth. 

d. Type bottom (code). 

e. Width. 

f. Length. 

g. Slope of entry bank, 
h. Slope of exit bank. 

LINE 5 OR TUNNEL CLASSIFICATION (data for a tunnel classification). 

a. Location. 

b. Usable width. 

c. Overhead clearance. 

d. Length. 

e. Bypass location. 

LINE 6 OR OBSTACLES (obstacle information). 

a. Location. 

b. Slope (code). 

c. Type (code). 

d. Length. 

e. Bypass location. 



7-26 



FM 23-10 



f. Dimensions. 

(1) From: 

(2) To: 

(3) To: 
CODES: Classification 

GREEN - all vehicles. 

AMBER - no AVLBs. 

RED - armed personnel carriers /BFVs. 

BLACK -1 1/4-ton wheels or less. 
Trafficability 

X - all weather. 

Y - limited weather. 

Z - fair weather. 
Movement 

F - fast. 

S - slow. 
Bypass 

E - easy. 

D - difficult. 
Type bottom 

M - mud. 

C -clay. 

S - sand. 

G - gravel. 

R - rock. 

P - paving. 
Slope 

A - less than 7 percent. 

B - 7 or 10 percent. 

C - 10 to 14 percent. 

D - Over 14 percent. 



7-27 



FM 23-10 



Type obstacle 
MF - mine field. 
TD - tank ditch. 
RF - rockfall or slide. 
CH - chemical. 
NBC - radiological. 
RB - roadblock. 
AB - abatis. 
- other. 

NOTES: 1. During reconnaissance., report items as they occur, since 
they are time-sensitive. 

2. If time permits, submit overlays to the S2 during briefing;. 
The S2 routinely consolidates details of terrain features and 
passes them to higher headquarters at the end of the debriefing. 

Example: "C12, THIS IS STRIKER 1, RECONREP OVER." 
"STRIKER 1, THIS IS C12; SEND MESSAGE, OVER." 
"C12, THIS IS STRIKER 1. LINE 1A: 2609910800. LINE 1C: ST 1. 
LINE 2A: I SET DL, JAR CMN. LINE 2B: SIL MNC. LINE 2C: 
GREEN. LINE 2D: X. LINE 2E: F." 



7-17. MEACONING, INTRUSION, JAMMING, AND 
INTERFERENCE REPORT. 



This paragraph complies with STANAG 6004. 

When the sniper team knows or suspects that the enemy is jamming, or 
knows or suspects that the enemy is intruding on the net, the incident is 
reported immediately by secure means to higher headquarter. Such 
information is vital for the protection and defense of friendly radio 
communications. The sniper who is experiencing the MIJI mcident 
forwards this report through the chain of command to the unit OP. He 
also submits a separate report for each MIJI incident. An example of a 
MIJI 1 report follows: 

ITEM 1-022 (encrypted) or MIJI 1. 
ITEM 2-3 (encrypted) or JAMMING. 



7-28 



FM 23-10 



ITEM 3 - 1 (encypted) or RADIO. 

ITEM 4 - 46.45 (encyypted if being transmitted over a nonsecure 
communications means). 

ITEM 5 - N6B85S. 

ITEM 6 - FA86345964 (encrypted if being transmitted over a 
nonsecure communications means). 

a. Item 1 - Type of Report. When transmitted over nonsecure 
communications means, the numerals 022 are encrypted as 
Item 1 of the MIJI report. When transmitted over secure 
communications means, the term MIJI 1 is used as Item 1 of 
the MIJI 1 report. 

b. Item 2 - Type of MIJI Incident. When transmitted over 
nonsecure communications means, the appropriate numeral 
preceding one of the items below is encrypted as Item 2 of the 
MIJI report. When transmitted over secure communications 
means, the appropriate term below is used as Item 2 of the 
MIJI 1 report. 

• Meaconing. 

• Intrusion. 

• Jamming. 

• Interference. 

c. Item 3 - Type of Equipment Affected. When transmitted 
over nonsecure communications means, the appropriate 
numeral preceding one of the terms below is encrypted as Item 
3 of the MIJI 1 report. When transmitted over secure 
communications means, the appropriate term below is used as 
Item 3 of the MIJI report. 

• Radio. 

• Radar. 

• Navigational aid. 

• Satellite. 

• Electro-optics. 

d. Item 4 - Frequency or Channel Affected. When transmitted 
over nonsecure communications means, the frequency or 
channel affected by the MIJI incident is encrypted as Item 4 of 
the MIJI 1 report. When transmitted over secure 



7-29 



FM 23-10 



communications means, the frequency or channel affected by 
the MIJI incident is Item 4 of the MIJI 1 report. 

e. Item 5 - Victim Designation and Call Sign of Affected 
Station Operator. The complete call sign of the affected 
station operator is Item 5 of the MIJI 1 report over both secure 
and nonsecure communications means. 

f. Item 6 - Coordinates of the Affected Station. When 
transmitted over nonsecure communications means, the 
complete grid coordinates of the affected station are encrypted 
as Item 6 of the MIJI 1 report. When transmitted over secure 
communications means, the complete grid coordinates of the 
affected station are Item 6 of the MIJI 1 report. 

7-18. SHELLING REPORTS 



This paragraph complies with STANAG 2934. 

The sniper team prepares and submits a SHELREP when it receives 
incoming rockets, mortars, or artillery rounds (FM 6-121). The team 
also uses this format for bombing attacks and mortars. The SHELREP 
format is as follows: 

• ALPHA: Unit call sign. 

• BRAVO: Location of observer. 

• CHARLIE: Azimuth to flash or sound. 

• DELTA: Time shelling started. 

• ECHO: Time shelling ended. 

• FOXTROT: Location of shelled area. 

• GOLF: Number, type, and caliber (fire support team personnel 
only). 

• HOTEL: Nature of fire (barrage, harassment, or registration). 

• INDIA: Number of rounds. 

• JULIET: Time of flash to bang. 

• KILO: Damage. 



FM 23-10 



7-19. ENEMY PRISONER OF WAR/CAPTURED MATERIEL 
REPORT 



This paragraph complies with STANAG 2084. 

The sniper team immediately tags EPWs and captured materiel. This 
ensures that information of intelligence value (place, time, and 
circumstances of capture) is not lost during evacuation. Only EPWs or 
materiel of immediate tactical importance are reported to the troop or 
battalion TOG Snipers use the following formats to report EPWs and 
captured materiel: 

a. Enemy Prisoners of War. 

LINE 1 - Type of report. 

LINE 2 - Item captured. 

LINE 3 - Date/time of capture. 

LINE 4 - Place of capture-grid coordinates. 

LINE 5 - Capturing unit-all sign. 

LINE 6 - Circumstances of capture (be brief). 

b. Captured Materiel. 

LINE 1 - Type of report. 

LINE 2 - Item captured. 

LINE 3 - Type document/equipment. 

LINE 4 - Date/time captured. 

LINE 5 - Place of capture-call sign. 

LINE 6 - Capturing unit— call sign. 

LINE 7 - Circumstances of capture (be brief). 

After the report is given to the company/team/commander, disposition 
instructions will be provided if needed. 



7-31 



FM 23-10 

7-20. NBC 1 REPORT 



This paragraph complies with STANAG 2103. 

The sniper team uses the NBC 1 report to submit initial and subsequent 
information on an NBC attack, transmitting over the command or 
operation and intelligence net immediately after an NBC attack. 

LINE 1 OR EVENT - Type of attack-nuclear, chemical, or 
biological. 

LINE 2 OR BRAVO - Grid location of observer. 

LINE 3 OR CHARLIE - Direction from observer to 
attack— mils or degree— true, grid, or magnetic. 

LINE 4 OR DELTA - Date-time group of detonation or star of attack. 

LINE 5 OR ECHO - Illumination time in seconds for nuclear attack. 

LINE 6 OR ECHO BRAVO - End time for biological/chemical attack 

LINE 7 OR FOXTROT - Actual or estimated (state which) grid 
coordinates for location of attack. 

LINE 8 OR GOLF - Means of delivery. 

LINE 9 OR HOTEL - Height of nuclear burst in feet or 
meters and or type of burst. 

LINE 10 OR HOTEL BRAVO - Type of biological /chemical 
attack and height of burst. 

LINE 11 OR INDIA BRAVO - Number of munitions or aircraft. 

LINE 12 OR EFFECTS - Effects of burst/agent on personnel. 

LINE 13 OR JULIETT - Flash-to-bang time in seconds for 
nuclear attack. 

LINE 14 OR KILO - Crater (yes or no) and width in meters. 

LINE 15 OR KILO BRAVO - Vegetation chemical/biological. 

LINE 16 OR LIMA - Nuclear burst angular cloud width, 
measured at five minutes after detonation in mils or degrees. 

LINE 17 OR MIKE - Stabilized cloud top height, in feet or meters, 
or angular cloud top angle, in degrees or mils, measured at H+10 
minutes after detonation and stabilized cloud height, in feet or 
meters, or angular cloud bottom angle, in degrees or mils, 
measured at H+10. 



7-32 



FM 23-10 

LINE 18 OR PAPA ALPHA- Grid of predicted outline of 
external contours of hazardous cloud or area. 

LINE 19 OR PAPA BRAVO - Downwind direction of nuclear 
cloud or duration of hazard in days. 

LINE 20 OR SIERRA - Date-time group of reading for nuclear 
or detection time for biological/chemical. 

LINE 21 OR YANKEE BRAVO - Effective downwind direction 
and wind speed. 

LINE 22 OR ZULU ALPHA STABILITY - Air stability indicator. 

LINE 23 OR ZULU ALPHA TEMPERATURE - Surface air 
temperature. 

LINE 24 OR ZULU ALPHA HUMIDITY - Relative humidity 
range. 

LINE 25 OR ZULU ALPHA WEATHER - Significant weather 
phenomena. 

LINE 26 OR ZULU ALPHA COVER - Cloud cover. 

LINE 27 OR NARRATIVE - Other significant observation. 

LINE 28 - Not used. 

LINE 29 OR AUTHENTICATION - Self-authentication, if required. 

7-21. MEDICAL EVACUATION REQUEST 

This paragraph complies with STANAG 3204. 

The sniper team sends a MEDEVAC request to the medical team on 
the company command net. 

a. When air assets are not available, the sniper team uses the 
ground evacuation format. 

LINE 1 - Evacuation. 

LINE 2 - Location for pickup (encode). 
LINE 3 - Number of casualties. 
LINE 4 - Category of patient(s). 

A Urgent. 

B Priority. 

C Routine. 



7-33 



FM 23-10 



Use the letter of the appropriate subparagraph from Line 4 with the 
number of casualties m Line 3— for example, a2 means there are two 
urgent patients for evacuation. 

b. When air assets are available, the sniper team uses the air 
evacuation format. 

LINE 1 - Location. 

LINE 2 - Radio frequency, call sign, and suffix. 

LINE 3 - Precedence: 

URGENT__ PRIORITY__ ROUTINE__ TACTICAL 

" IMMEDIATE- 
LINE 4 - Special equipment. 
LINE 5 - Number of patients by type: 

Little Ambulator_ 

LINE 6 - Security of pickup site. 
LINE 7 - Method of marking pickup size. 
LINE 8 - Patient's nationality and status. 
LINE 9 - NBC contamination. 

c. The definitions of the categories of precedence follow: 

(1) Urgent. Used for emergency cases for evacuation as 
soon as possible and no more than two hours to save life, 
limb, and eyesight. 

(2) Priority. Used when the patient should be evacuated 
within four hours or his medical condition will deteriorate 
to an URGENT precedence. 

(3) Routine. Requires evacuation, but the patient's condition 
is not expected to deteriorate within the next 24 hours. 

(4) Tactical immediate. Used when the patient's condition 
is not urgent or priority, but evacuation is required as soon 
as possible so as not to endanger the requestmg unit's 
tactical mission. 



7-34 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 8 
TRACKING/COUNTERTRACKING 

When a sniper follows a trail, he builds a picture of the enemy in his 
mind by asking himself questions: How many persons am I 
following? What is their state of training? How are they equipped? 
Are they healthy? What is their state of morale? Do they know they 
are being followed? To answer these questions, the sniper uses 
available indicators to track the enemy. The sniper looks for signs 
that reveal an action occurred at a specific time and place. 
Tor example, a footprint in soft sand is an excellent indicator, since 
a sniper can determine the specific time the person passed 
By comparing indicators, the sniper obtains answers to his 
questions. Tor example, a footprint and a waist-high scuff on a tree 
may indicate that an armed individual passed this way. 

Section I 
TRACKING 

Any indicator the sniper discovers can be defined by one of six 
tracking concepts: displacement, stains, weather, litter, camouflage, and 
immediate-use intelligence. 

8-1. DISPLACEMENT 

Displacement takes place when anything is moved from its 
original position. A well-defined footprint or shoe print in soft, moist 
ground is a good example of displacement. By studying the footprint or 
shoe print, the sniper determines several important facts. For example, a 
?rint left by worn footgear or by bare feet may indicate lack of 
proper equipment. Displacement can also result from clearing a trail by 
)reaking or cutting through heavy vegetation with a machete. These trails 
are obvious to the most inexperienced sniper who is tracking. Individuals may 



8-1 



FM 23-10 



unconsciously break more branches as they follow someone who is cutting 
the vegetation. Displacement indicators can also be made by persons 
carrying heavy loads who stop to rest; prints made by box edges can help 
to identify the load. When loads are set down at a rest halt or campsite, 
they usually crush grass and twigs. A reclining soldier also flattens 
the vegetation. 

a. Analyzing Footprints. Footprints may indicate direction, rate of 
movement, number, sex, and whether the individual knows he is 
being tracked. 

(1) If footprints are deep and the pace is long, rapid movement 
is apparent. Long strides and deep prints with toe prints deeper than heel 
prints indicate running (A, Figure 8-1). 

(2) Prints that are deep, short, and widely spaced, with signs of 
scuffing or shuffling indicate the person is carrying a heavy load (B, 
Figure 8-1). 

(3) If the party members realize they are being followed, they may try 
to hide their tracks. Persons walking backward (C, Figure 8-1) have a 
short, irregular stride. The prints have an unnaturally deep toe, and soil 
is displaced in the direction of movement. 

(4) To determine the sex (D, Figure 8-1), the sniper should study the 
size and position of the footprints. Women tend to be pigeon-toed, while 
men walk with their feet straight ahead or pointed slightly to the outside. 
Prints left by women are usually smaller and the striae is usually shorter 
than prints left by men. 

b. Determining Key Prints. The last individual in the file usually 
leaves the clearest footprints; these become the key prints. The sniper 
cuts a stick to match the length of the prints and notches it to indicate the 
width at the widest part of the sole. He can then study the angle of the 
key prints to the direction of march. The sniper looks for an identifying 
mark or feature, such as worn or frayed footwear, to help him identify 
the key prints. If the trail becomes vague, erased, or merges with another, 
the sniper can use his stick-measuring devices and, with close study, can 
identify the key prints. This method helps the sniper to stay on the trail. 
A technique used to count the total number of individuals Being tracked 
is the box method. There are two methods the sniper can use to employ 
the box method. 

(1) The most accurate is to use the stride as a unit of measure 
(Figure 8-2) when key prints can be determined. The sniper uses the set 
of key prints and the edges of the road or trail to box in an area to analyze. 
This method is accurate under the right conditions for counting up to 
18 persons. 



8-2 



FM 23-10 



A 

RUNNING 



* • • 

•V 
(f- "* 


». 

f 



B C 

CARRYING WALKING 
LOAD BACKWARD 



<\ 



MAN 



WOMAN 




Figure 8-1 . Different types of footprints. 



KEY 
PRINTS 



PRINTS OF 8 
PERSONS 




Figure 8-2. Stride measurement. 



8-3 



FM 23-10 



(2) The sniper may also use the the 36-inch box method (Figure 8-3) 
if key prints are not evident. To use the 36-inch box method, the sniper 
uses the edges of the road or trail as the sides of the box. He measures a 
cross section of the area 36 inches long, counting each indentation in the 
box and dividing by two. This method gives a close estimate of the number 
of individuals who made the prints; however, this system is not as accurate 
as the stride measurement. 




10 PRINTS IN 36 INCHES DIVIDED BY 2 = 5 PERSONS 



Figure 8-3. 36-inch box method. 

c. Recognizing Other Signs of Displacement Foliage, moss, vines, 
sticks, or rocks that are scuffed or snagged from their original position 
form valuable indicators. Vines may be dragged, dew droplets displaced, 
or stones and sticks overturned (A, Figure 8-4) to show a different 
color underneath. Grass or other vegetation may be bent or broken in 
the direction of movement (B, Figure 8-4). 

(1) The sniper inspects all areas for bits of clothing, threads, or dirt from 
footgear that can be torn or can fall and be left on thorns, snags, or the ground. 

(2) Flushed from their natural habitat, wild animals and birds are 
another example of displacement. Cries of birds excited by unnatural 
movement is an indicator; moving tops of tall grass or brush on a windless 
day indicates that someone is moving the vegetation. 

(3) Changes in the normal life of insects and spiders may indicate 
that someone nas recently passed. Valuable clues are disturbed bees, ant 
holes uncovered by someone moving over them, or torn spider webs. 
Spiders often spin webs across open areas, trails, or roads to trap 
flying insects. If the tracked person does not avoid these webs, he leaves 
an indicator to an observant sniper. 



8-4 



FM 23-10 



(4) If the person being followed tries to use a stream to cover his trail, 
the sniper can still follow successfully. Algae and other water plants can 
be displaced by lost footing or by careless walking. Rocks can be displaced 
from their original position or overturned to indicate a lighter or darker 
color on the opposite side. The person entering or exiting a stream 
creates slide marks or footprints, or scuffs the bark on roots or sticks 
(C, Figure 8-4). Normally, a person or animal seeks the path of least 
resistance; therefore, when searching the stream for an indication of 
departures, snipers will find signs in open areas along the banks. 



tv ft 



h 





TURNED OVER 
ROCKS AND STICKS 



CRUSHED AND 
DISTURBED 



SUP MARK AND WATER 

FILLED FOOTPRINTS ON 

STREAM BANKS 



Figure 8-4. Other displacements. 

8-2. STAINS 

A stain occurs when any substance from one organism or article is smeared 
or deposited on something else. The best example of staining is blood 
from a profusely bleeding wound. Bloodstains often appear as spatters 
or drops and are not always on the ground; they also appear smeared on 
leaves or twigs of trees and bushes. 

a. By studying bloodstains, the sniper can determine the 
wound's location. 

(1) If the blood seems to be dripping steadily, it probably came from 
a wound on the trunk. 

(2) If the blood appears to be slung toward the front, rear, or sides, 
the wound is probably m the extremity. 

(3) Arterial wounds appear to pour blood at regular intervals as if 
poured from a pitcher. If the wound is veinous, the blood pours steadily. 

(4) A lung wound deposits pink, bubbly, and frothy bloodstains. 



8-5 



FM 23-10 

(5) A bloodstain from a head wound appears heavy, wet, and slimy. 

(6) Abdominal wounds often mix blood with digestive juices so the 
deposit has an odor and is light in color. 

The sniper can also determine the seriousness of the wound and how far 
the wounded person can move unassisted. This proms may lead the sniper 
to enemy bodies or indicate where they have been carried. 

b. Staining can also occur when muddy footgear is dragged over grass, 
stones, and shrubs. Thus, staining and displacement combine to indicate 
movement and direction. Crushed leaves may stain rocky ground that is 
too hard to show footprints. Roots, stones, and vines may be stained where 
leaves or berries are crushed by moving feet. 

c. The sniper may have difficulty in determining the difference 
between staining and displacement since both terms can be applied to 
some indicators. For example, muddied water may indicate recent 
movement; displaced mud also stains the water. Muddy footgear can 
stain stones in streams, and algae can be displaced from stones in streams 
and can stain other stones or the bank. Muddy water collects in new 
footprints in swampy ground; however, the mud settles and the water clears 
with time. The sniper can use this information to indicate time; normally, 
the mud clears in ahout one hour, although time varies with the terrain. 

8-3. WEATHER 

Weather either aids or hinders the sniper. It also affects indicators in 
certain ways so that the sniper can determine their relative ages. 
However, wind, snow, rain, or sunlight can erase indicators entirely and 
hinder the sniper. The sniper should know how weather affects soil, 
vegetation, and other indicators in his area. He cannot determine the age 
of indicators until he understands the effects that weather has on trail signs. 

a. By studying weather effects on indicators, the sniper can determine 
the age of the sign (for example, when bloodstains are fresh, they are 
bright red). Air and sunlight first change blood to a deep ruby-red color, 
then to a dark brown crust when the moisture evaporates. Scuff marks on 
trees or bushes darken with time; sap oozes, then hardens when it makes 
contact with the air. 

b. Weather affects footprints (Figure 8-5). By carefully studying the 
weather process, the sniper can estimate the age of the print. If particles 
of soil are beginning to fall into the print, the sniper should oecome 
a stalker. If the edges of the print are dried and crusty, the prints are 
probably about one hour old. This varies with terrain and should be 
considered as a guide only. 

8-6 



FM 23-10 




Figure 8-5. Weather effects on footprints. 

c. A light rain may round the edges of the print. By remembering 
when thelast rain occurred, the sniper can place the print into a 

time frame. A heavy rain may erase all signs. 

d. Trails exiting streams may appear weathered by rain due to water 
running from clothing or equipment into the tracks. This is especially 
true if the party exits the stream single file. Then, each person deposits 
water into the tracks. The existence of a wet, weathered trail slowly fading 
into a dry trail indicates the trail is fresh. 

e. Wind dries tracks and blows litter, sticks, or leaves into prints. 
By recalling wind activity, the sniper may estimate the age of the tracks. 
For example, the sniper may reason "the wind is calm at the present but 
blew hard about an nour ago. These tracks have litter in them, so they 
must be over an hour old." However, he must be sure that the litter was 
not crushed into them when the prints were made. 

(1) Wind affects sounds and odors. If the wind is blowing toward the 
sniper, sounds and odors may be carried to him; conversely, if the wind is 
blowing away from the sniper, he must be extremely cautious since wind 
also carries sounds toward the enemy. The sniper can determine wind 
direction by dropping a handful of dust or dried grass from 
shoulder height. By pointing in the same direction the wind is blowing, 
the sniper can localize sounds by cupping his hands behind his ears and 
turning slowly. When sounds are loudest, the sniper is facing the origin. 

(2) In calm weather (no wind), air currents that may be too light to 
detect can carry sounds to the sniper. Air cools in the evening and moves 
downhill toward the valleys. If the sniper is moving uphill late in the day 
or at night, air currents will probably oe moving toward him if no other 
wind is blowing. As the morning sun warms the air in the valleys, it 
moves uphill. The sniper considers these factors when plotting patrol 



8-7 



FM 23-10 



routes or other operations. If he keeps the wind in his face, sounds and 
odors will be carried to him from his objective or from the party being tracked. 
(3) The sun should also be considered by the sniper. It is difficult to 
fire directly into the sun, but if the sniper has the sun at his back and the 
wind in his face, he has a slight advantage. 

8-4. LITTER 

A poorly trained or poorly disciplined unit moving over terrain may leave 
a trail of litter. Unmistakable signs of recent movement are gum or candy 
wrappers, food cans, cigarette butts, remains of fires, or human feces. 
Rain flattens or washes litter away and turns paper into pulp. Exposure to 
weather can cause food cans to rust at the opened edge; then, the rust 
moves toward the center. The sniper must consider weather conditions 
when estimating the age of litter. He can use the last rain or strong wind 
as the basis for a time frame. 

8-5. CAMOUFLAGE 

Camouflage applies to tracking when the followed party employs 
techniques to baffle or slow the sniper. For example, walking backward 
to leave confusing prints, brushing out trails, and moving over rocky 
ground or through streams. 

8-6. IMMEDIATE-USE INTELLIGENCE 

The sniper combines all indicators and interprets what he has seen to form 
a composite picture for on-the-spot intelligence. For example, indicators 
may show contact is imminent and require extreme stealth. 

a. The sniper avoids reporting his interpretations as facts. He reports 
what he has seen rather than stating these things exist. There are many 
ways a sniper can interpret the sex and size of the party, the load, and the 
type of equipment. Timeframes can be determined by weathering effects 
on indicators. 

b. Immediate-use intelligence is information about the enemy that 
can be used to gain surprise, to keep him off balance, or to keep him from 
escaping the area entirely. The commander may have many sources 
of intelligence reports, documents, or prisoners of war. These sources 
can be combined to form indicators of the enemy's last location, future 
plans, and destination. 

c. Tracking, however, gives the commander definite information on 
which to act immediately. For example, a unit may report there are no 
men of military age in a village. This information is of value only if it is 
combined with other information to make a composite enemy picture in 



8-8 



FM 23-10 



the area. Therefore, a sniper who interprets trail signs and reports that 
he is 30 minutes behind a known enemy unit, moving north, and located 
at a specific location, gives the commander information on which he can 
act at once. 

8-7. DOG/HANDLER TRACKING TEAMS 

Dog /handler tracking teams are a threat to the sniper team. While small 
and lightly armed, they can increase the area that a rear area security unit 
can search. Due to the dog/handler tracking team's effectiveness and its 
lack of firepower, a sniper team may be tempted to destroy such an 
"easy" target. Whether a sniper should fight or run depends on the 
situation and the sniper. Eliminating or injuring the clog/handler 
tracking team only confirms that there is a hostile team operating in 
the area. 

a. When looking for sniper teams, trackers use wood line sweeps and 
area searches. A wood line sweep consists of walking the dog upwind of 
a suspected wood line or brush line. If the wind is blowing through the 
woods and out of the wood line, trackers move 50 to 100 meters inside a 
wooded area to sweep the wood's edge. Since wood line sweeps tend to 
be less specific, trackers perform them faster. An area search is used when 
a team's location is specific such as a small wooded area or block of houses. 
The search area is cordoned off, if possible, and the dog/handler tracking 
teams are brought on line, about 25 to 150 meters apart, depending on 
terrain and visibility. The handler trackers then advance, each moving 
their dogs through a specific corridor. The handler tracker controls the 
dog entirely with voice commands and gestures. He remains undercover, 
directing the dog in a search pattern or to a likely target area. The search 
line moves forward with each dog dashing back and forth in 
assigned sectors. 

b. While dog/handler tracking teams area potent threat, there are 
counters available to the sniper team. The beat defenses are basic infantry 
techniques: good camouflage and light, noise, and trash discipline. 
Dogs find a sniper team either by detecting a trail or by a point source 
such as human waste odors at the hide site. It is critical to try to obscure 
or limit trails around the hide, especially along the wood line or area 
closest to the team's target area. Surveillance targets are usually the 
major axis of advance. "Trolling the wood lines" along likely looking 
roads or intersections is a favorite tactic of dog/handler tracking teams. 
When moving into a target area, the sniper team should take the 
following countermeasures: 

(1) Remain as faraway from the target area as the situation allows. 



8-9 



FM 23-10 



(2) Never establish a position at the edge of cover and concealment 
nearest the target area 

(3) Reduce the track. Try to approach the position area on hard, dry 
ground or along a stream or river. 

(4) Urinate in a hole and cover it up. Never urinate in the same spot. 

(5) Bury fecal matter deep. If the duration of the mission permits, 
use MRE bags sealed with tape and take it with you. 

(6) Never smoke. 

(7) Carry all trash until it can be buried elsewhere. 

(8) Surround the hide site with a 3-cm to 5-cm band of motor oil to 
mask odor; although less effective but easier to carry, garlic may be used. 
A dead animal can also be used to mask smell, although it may attract 
unwanted canine attention. 

c. If a dog/handler tracking team moves into the area, the sniper team 
can employ several actions but should first check wind direction 
and speed. If the sniper team is downwind of the estimated search area, 
the chances are minimal that the team's point smells will probably 
be detected. If upwind of the search area, the sniper team should attempt 
to move downwind. Terrain and visibility dictate whether the sniper team 
can move without being detected visually by the handlers of the 
tracking team. Remember, sweeps are not always conducted just outside 
of a wood line. Wind direction determines whether the sweep will be 
parallel to the outside or 50 to 100 meters inside the wood line. 

(1) The sniper team has options if caught inside the search area of a 
line search. The handlers rely on radio communications and often do not 
have visual contact with each other. If the sniper team has been generally 
localized through enemy radio detection-finding equipment, the search 
net will still be loose during the initial sweep. A sniper team has a small 
chance of hiding and escaping detection in deep brush or in woodpiles. 
Larger groups will almost certainly be found. Yet, the sniper team may 
have the opportunity to eliminate the handler and to escape the 
search net. 

(2) The handler hides behind cover with the dog. He searches for 
movement and then sends the dog out in a straight line toward the front. 
Usually, when the dog has moved about 50 to 75 meters, the handler calls 
the dog back. The handier then moves slowly forward and always from 
covered position to covered position. Commands are by voice and 
gesture with a backup whistle to signal the dog to return. If a handler is 
eliminated or badly injured after he has released the dog, but before he 
has recalled it, the dog continues to randomly search out and away from 
the handler. The dog usually returns to another handler or to his former 



8-10 



FM 23-10 



handler's last position within several minutes. This creates a gap from 
25 to 150 meters wide in the search pattern. Response times by the other 
searchers tend to be fast. Given the high degree of radio communication, 
the injured handler will probably be quickly missed from the radio net. 
Killing the dogbefore the handler will probably delay discovery only 
by moments. Dogs are so reliable that if the dog does not return 
immediately, the handler knows something is wrong. 

(3) If the sniper does not have a firearm, one dog can be dealt with 
relatively easy if a knife or large club is available. The sniper must keep 
low and strike upward using the wrist, never overhand. Dogs are quick 
and will try to strike the groin or legs. Most attack dogs are trained to go 
for the groin or throat. If alone and faced with two or more dogs, the 
sniper should avoid the situation. 

Section II 
COUNTERTRACKING 

If an enemy tracker finds the tracks of two men, this may indicate that a 
highly trained team may be operating in the area. However, a knowledge 
of countertracking enables the sniper team to survive by remaining 
undetected. 

8-8. EVASION 

Evasion of the tracker or pursuit team is a difficult task that requires the 
use of immediate-action drills to counter the threat. A sniper team skilled 
in tracking techniques can successfully employ deception drills to lessen 
signs that the enemy can use against them. However, it is very difficult 
for a person, especially a group, to move across any area without leaving 
signs noticeable to the trained eye. 

8-9. CAMOUFLAGE 

The sniper team may use the most used and the least used routes to cover 
its movement. It also loses travel time when trying to camouflage the trail. 

a. Most Used Routes. Movement on lightly traveled sandy or soft 
trails is easily tracked. However, a sniper may try to confuse the tracker 
by moving on hard-surfaced, often-traveled roads or by merging 
with civilians. These routes should be carefully examined; if a 
well-defined approach leads to the enemy, it will probably be mined, 
ambushed, or covered by snipers. 

b. Least Used Routes. Least used routes avoid all man-made trails 
or roads and confuse the tracker. These routes are normally magnetic 



8-11 



FM 23-10 



azimuths between two points. However, the tracker can use the proper 
concepts to follow the sniper team if he is experienced and persistent. 

c. Reduction of Trail Signs. A sniper who tries to hide his trail 
moves at reduced speed; therefore, the experienced tracker gains time. 
Common methods to reduce trail signs areas follows: 

(1) Wrap footgear with rags or wear soft-soled sneakers, which make 
footprints rounded and leas distinctive. 

(2) Brush out the trail. This is rarely done without leaving signs. 

(3) Change into footgear with a different tread immediately 
following a deceptive maneuver. 

(4) Walk on hard or rocky ground. 

8-10. DECEPTION TECHNIQUES 

Evading a skilled and persistent enemy tracker requires skillfully executed 
maneuvers to deceive the tracker and to cause him to lose the trail. An enemy 
tracker cannot be outrun by a sniper team that is carrying equipment, 
because he travels light and is escorted by enemy forces designed 
for pursuit. The size of the pursuing force dictates the sniper team's 
chances of success in employing ambush-type maneuvers. Sniper teams 
use some of the following techniques in immediate-action drills and 
deception drills. 

a. Backward Walking. One of the basic techniques used is that of 
walking backward (Figure 8-6) in tracks already made, and then stepping 
off the trail onto terrain or objects that leave little sign. Skillful use of 
this maneuver causes the tracker to look in the wrong direction once he 
has lost the trail. 

b. Large Tree A good deception tactic is to change directions at 
large trees (Figure 8-7). To do this, the sniper moves in any given direction 
and walks past a large tree (12 inches wide or larger) from 5 to 10 paces. 
He carefully walks backward to the forward side of the tree and makes a 
90-degree change in the direction of travel, passing the tree on its 
forward side. This technique uses the tree as a screen to hide the new trail 
from the pursuing tracker. 

NOTE: By studying signs, a tracker may determine if an attempt 
is being made to confuse him. If the sniper team loses the 
tracker by walking backward, footprints will be deepened at the 
toe and soil will be scuffed or dragged in the direction of 
movement. By following carefully the tracker can normally find 
a turnaround point. 



8-12 



FM 23-10 



DIRECTION OF TRAVEL 



_ BACKTRACK^ 




HIDDEN TRAIL 



Figure 8-6. Walking backward. 



DIRECTION OF TRAVEL 






BACKTRACK 

'to 




Figure 8-7. Large tree. 



8-13 



FM 23-10 



c. Cut the Corner. Cut-the-corner technique is used when 
approaching a known road or trail. About 100 meters from the road, the 
sniper team changes its direction of movement, either 45 degrees left or right. 
Once the road is reached, the sniper team leaves a visible trail in the same 
direction of the deception for a short distance on the road. The tracker 
should believe that the sniper team "cut the corner" to save time. 
The sniper team backtracks on the trail to the point where it entered the 
road, and then it carefully moves on the road without leaving a good trail. 
Once the desired distance is achieved, the sniper team changes direction 
and continues movement (Figure 8-8). 



CONTINUE 
MOVEMENT 




DIRECTION 

OF 
MOVEMENT 



Figure 8-8. Cut the corner. 

d. Slip the Stream. The sniper team uses slip-the-stream technique 
when approaching a known stream. The sniper team executes this 
method the same as the cut the comer technique. The sniper team 
establishes the 45-degree deception maneuver upstream, then enters 



8-14 



FM 23-10 

the stream. The sniper team moves upstream to prevent floating debris 
and silt from compromising its direction of travel, and the sniper team 
establishes false trails upstream if time permits. Then, it moves 
downstream to escape since creeks and streams gain tributaries that offer 
more escape alternatives (Figure 8-9). 



FALSE 
TRAIL 




TEAM 

CONTINUES 

MISSION 



DIRECTION 

OF 
MOVEMENT 



45" 



Figure 8-9. Slip the stream. 

e. Arctic Circle. The sniper team uses the arctic circle technique in 
snow-covered terrain to escape pursuers or to hide a patrol oase. 
It establishes a trail in a circle (Figure 8-10, page 8-16) as large as possible. 
The trail that starts on a road and returns to the same start point is effective. 
At some point along the circular trail, the sniper team removes snowshoes 
(if used) and carefully steps off the trail, leaving one set of tracks. The 
large tree maneuver can be used to screen the trail. From the hide 
position, the sniper team returns over the same steps and carefully fills 
them with snow one at a time. This technique is especially effective if it 
is snowing. 



8-15 



FM 23-10 



SNOW-COVERED 
TERRAIN 




HIDDEN 
TRAIL 

SCREENING 
TREE 

HIDE 
POSITION 



Figure 8-1 0. Arctic circle. 

f. Fishhook. The sniper team uses the fishhook technique to double 
back (Figure 8-11) on its own trail in an overwatch position. The sniper 
team can observe the back trail for trackers or ambush pursuers. If the 
pursuing force is too large to be destroyed, the sniper team strives to 
eliminate the tracker. The sniper team uses the hit-and-run tactics, then 
moves to another ambush position. The terrain must be used to advantage. 




Figure 8-11. Fishhook. 



8-16 



FM 23-10 



CHAPTER 9 

SNIPER SUSTAINMENT TRAINING 

Repetitive training in long-range markmanship and field-craft 
skills ensures the best probability of effective engagement and the 
minimum risk of detection. Snipers must sustain basic soldier skills 
and master and sustain critical mission skills to accomplish 
their objectives. Both sniper and observer are trained snipers and 
should oe highly skilled in the art of sniping. Sniping skills perish 
quickly; therefore, sniper teams must sustain and sharpen those 
skills regularly. To deny the importance and need to sustain sniper 
training deprives the commander of a valuable asset. This chapter 
also includes a 5-day sniper sustainment training program. 

9-1. BASIC SKILLS SUSTAINMENT 

Due to the primary and secondary missions of the sniper, minimum skill 
sustainment should include observation, range estimation, concealment, 
concealed movement, and rifle firing. Sustainment of these skills may 
best be accomplished through sniper training exercises and unit-level 
live-fire exercises. (DA Pamphlet 350-38 outlines the frequency and 
ammunition requirements needed to conduct sniper training.) 
Sniper training exercises provide snipers with practical experience in 
detecting and engaging realistic targets under field conditions on ranges 
comparable to a battlefield. This training also provides snipers with a 
means to practice the various sniper training fundamentals that has been 
taught previously, often collectively. These exercises mayor may not be 
graded; however, competition is a proven method to obtain the 
desired results. At the end of the exercises, the trainer critiques each 
sniper on his performance. These exercises include zeroing and practice 
fire, field fire (unknown distance), concealment, concealed movement target 
detection, range estimation, land navigation, memory enhancement 



9-1 



FM 23-10 



exercise (KIM game), and communications. Each sniper will go through 
these training exercises. 

a. Zeroing and Pratice Fire. To engage targets effectively during 
training exercises and in combat, the sniper must have his rifle 
accurately zeroed. For this reson the zeroing exercises are normally 
conducted on a measured known-distance range to ensure precise 
adjustment, recording, and practice under ideal conditions and to 
eliminate variables that may prevent achieving an effective zero. The sniper 
rifle is zeroed using both the telescopic andiron sights. A bull's-eye-type 
target should be used for zeroing. It is important to acquire a 
point-of-aim, point-of -impact zero at 100 meters using the M24. As the 
distance increases, the sniper must adjust his telescope to allow for 
elevation and wind to ensure the rounds stay in the center of the target. 

b. Field Fire. Practical firing exercises are designed to develop 
sniper proficiency in the accurate and rapid engagement of various 
combat-type targets, as well as to provide practical work in other 
field techniques. Snipers should be given positions on the firing line and 
areas of the field fire course to observe and make range cards or the area. 

(1) After the range cards have been completed, the snipers will be 
required to fire the course by having one member call the wind and adjust 
the other member's fire. The ability to call the wind is important as 
successful engagement of the targets. After one member fires the course, 
they switch positions and repeat the fire course. 

(2) When firing the course, snipers should engage the targets in a 
sequence that starts with the 200-meter target, then engage each target 
out to 800 meters, then engage targets back to the 200-meter target. 
(Targets are engaged twice. Snipers will engage a target with no more 
than two rounds per target.) The course consists of engaging 20 targets 
with 30 rounds of ammunition within a 30-minute time iimit. The sniper 
should be scored as follows: 

• 10 points for first-round hits. 

• 5 points for second-round hits. 

• 200 points maximum. 

• 140 points needed to pass (70 percent). 

(3) To enhance training, snipers should also fire the field fire course 
during limited visibility with overhead illumination such as 
parachute flares. This puts stress on the sniper to determine the range 
and to engage a target in a short amount of time. 

(4) lb provide the most realistic training environment trainers do not 
use range commands to commence fire ana cease fire in sniper exercises. 



9-2 



FM 23-10 



The only exception to this is when an unsafe condition exists. 
The command CEASE FIRE should be given immediately. Snipers must 
be given a thorough orientation on each exercise (to include safety 
requirements) before they are permitted to move into position. After the 
sniper has assumed his firing position in the designated location, he 
should be allowed to fire without further commands. Therefore, the 
range must be cleared for firing before the exercise begins. An NCO 
(assistant trainer) must be with each sniper to keep score and to maintain 
safety during the exercise. When the sniper completes firing, the NCO 
ensures the rifle is clear and signals the range officer. 

NOTE: A blank copy of the forms that follow are located at the 
back of this manual for local reproduction. 

c. Concealment. Concealment exercises develop and test the 
sniper's ability to conceal himself in an expedient firing position while 
observing and engaging an observer-instructor. Figure 9-1, page 9-4, is 
an example of completed DA Form 7325-R, Concealment Exercise 
Scorecard. 

(1) In a cleared area with a wood line about 100 meters away, snipers 
conceal themselves within 10 minutes in the wood line. After the 
10-minute preparation, an observer-instructor 100 meters away visually 
searches the area for 2 minutes without the aid of optics. After 2 minutes, 
the observer-instructor searches the wood line (from his position) for 
18 minutes, using binoculars and the M49 observation telescope. If there 
are more than 10 snipers in the exercise, two observer-instructors and two 
assistant trainers may be needed. After the 20-minute period, an assistant 
trainer with a radio moves within 10 feet of a sniper, who is ready to fire 
at an observer-instructor. 

(2) The sniper should be able to identify a white 5-inch number that 
is painted on an 8-inch by 8-inch international orange panel. This panel 
is held over a vital part of the observer-instructor, and two blanks are fired 
at him without the sniper being detected. If the target detects the sniper, 
he radios the assistant trainer and directs him to the sniper. The exercise 
should be scored on a 10-point system, with 7 points being a passing score. 
(See Paragraph 9-4, Day 3, to score the concealment exercise.) 



9-3 



FM 23-10 



M r» «nN«hOlH 




J 

3 



g. 

1 

o 

** m 

BS S8 S 

« • • Of 

« • • a o. c 

hHHOO D-Hfl 

c m n a a-H v d 

033B fi£30 

UEZHHiaou 
DDtDDDDQ 



I 

3 4J.P 




| 
5 

tlflSSi 



•H « 



O *J kt 

- C N 




Figure 9-1 . Example of completed DA Form 7325-R, 
Concealment Exercise Scorecard. 



9-4 



FM 23-10 

d. Concealed Movement. Concealed movement exereise develops and 
tests the sniper's ability to move and occupy a firing position undetected. 
Trainers record scores on DA Form 7326-R, Concealed Movement 
Exercise Scorecard (Figure 9-2, page 9-6). 

(1) This exercise requires the same amount of trainers and equipment 
as in the concealment exercises. Areas used should be observable for 
1,000 meters and have easily recognizable left and right limits. Ideally, 
snipers should train in a different type of area each time they perform 
these exercises. 

(2) The snipers move 800 to 600 meters toward two observer-instructors, 
occupy a firing position 100 to 200 meters away, identify in the same 
manner as the concealment exercise, and fire two blanks at the targets 
without being detected at any time. If one of the observer-instructors 
detects a sniper, he radios one of the assistant trainers and directs him to 
the sniper's position. The sniper is given three hours to complete 
the exercise. The exercise is scored on a lo-point system, with 7 points 
being a passing wore. (See Paragraph 9-4, Day 4, to score concealed 
movement exercise.) 



9-5 



FM 23-10 



U> CO Ot o 




Figure 9-2. Example of completed DA Form 7326-R, 
Concealed Movement Exercise Scorecard. 



9-6 



FM 23-10 



e. Target Detection. Target detection exercises sharpen the sniper's 
eyes by requiring him to detect, describe, and plot objects that cannot be 
easily seen or described without the skillful use or optics. Scores are 
recorded on DA Form 7327-R, Target Detection Exercise Scorecard 
(Figure 9-3, page 9-8). 

(1) Areas used for target detection should be partly cleared at least 
200 meters in depth and 100 meters in width with easily definable left and 
right limits. The area should have at least three TRPs that are easily 
recognized and positioned in different locations throughout the area. 
Ten military items are placed in the area. These items can be radio antennas, 
small-scale mock vehicles, batteries, map protractors, or weapons. 
Items should be placed so that they are undetectable with the naked eye, 
detectable but indescribable with the binoculars, and describable only by 
using the M49 observation telescope. 

(2) Snipers are given an M49 observations telescope, M22 binoculars, 
pencil, clip board, and scorecard. Snipers are given 40 minutes to detect, 
describe, and plot each item in the area. Snipers remain in the prone 
position throughout the exercise. After 15 minutes, they will move to a 
different position, left or right of the centerline of observation and remain 
there for the next 15 minutes. For the last 10 minutes, they can choose a 
position anywhere along the line. When an object is detected, the sniper 
gives his location on the line of observation (A or B). Next, the sniper 
must describe the object using the categories of size, shape, color, 
condition, and appearance. Snipers receive 1/2 point for correctly 
plotting a target and 1/2 point for correctly describing it. They must 
achieve 7 points to receive a GO in this area. 

NOTE: The trainer should sanitize the site before the exercise. 
If the sniper finds additional items to describe he may use the 
eleventh and twelfth lines of the scorecard. If the trainer allows 
the sniper can obtain credit for observation and detection skills. 



9-7 



FM 23-10 



nMTER* (JL ) TARGET DETECTION EXERCISE SCOHECARD . «#: <flL2» 

For UN of It* form. Hi FM 29-10; Iho proponont agonor I* THAOOC 



A 

7 


B 


f 





E 


F 





H 


■ 
















S 








1 


J 


\ 




tot 


* 


1 
LI i. y 


W\ 


n_ 






iLj 


'V 


ft 


/HS£R 


3 ^*^ 








Js 


m 


y* 




-v 




3 5X»8SK 


















1 ^* 










^■^"jC ' 















© 











SKETCH NAME: flfegfe /fl02» 
WEATHER ClfA* flt* 



' ADmu* 






/* sIDM 



wmdQiUdmL 



b*wk= ggr- 



amUE&J2.T»*J&££— 



SHAPE 



color 



CONOmON 



APPEARS TO BE 



GROBOXLOC. 



%b'*H'fj 



p=^?"~* 



ffMCK 



5fi<^ 



^/6/42. 



*"3 ta 



to'*r*4* 



D> 



<g*E0»; 



$e*v 



jS aj^o_ 



PzUSl 



T*V*T 



ft 



Butie 



UNse*u 



Lt£NAt>e 



G-*(5? 



S'*Z"^' 



&. 



Black 



*ezv 



TANK 



C«3 <5> 



«-»nr.»nv E3 



<JtE4K 



XffKV 



PttrttMlAK 



s-zS) 



/**»'»»' 



^feU>W 



<gXV 



_£Q5d£_ 



iL3_®. 



ftfr J-M* -' 



eui< 



gggy 



MHUNiUM C-$(g) 



t,* tiffin: 



&«**> 



se*V 



AW40 tax 



Q-i ® 



f*i'»i* 



blAcx 



gf/tV 



nAAtTSMCA* H'*tG> 



io IVukV 



s/We* 



smv 



awr gn p 



t>s(fi) 



DAFORM7327-R.JUL84 



Figure 9-3. Example of completed DA Form 7327-R, 
Target Detection Exercise Scorecard. 



9-8 



FM 23-10 



f. Range Estimation. Snipers must correctly estimate distance to 
effectively fire weapons, complete accurate range cards, and give reliable 
intelligence reports. Range estimation exercises should be conducted in 
an area that allows unobstructed observation of a human-size target up 
to 1,000 meters away. Scores are recorded on DA Form 7328-R, Range 
Estimation Exercise Scorecard (Figure 9-4, page 9-10). Personnel should 
be placed at various ranges and stages of concealment to give the sniper 
a challenging and realistic exercise. Snipers should be graded on their 
ability to estimate range by using the naked eye, M19/M22 binoculars, and 
the M3A scope. Snipers must correctly estimate the distance to 7 of 10 
objects using their eyes (± 15 percent), 7 to 10 objects using the binoculars 
(± 10 percent), and 7 to 10 objects using the M3A telescope (± 5 percent). 
They must sketch their assigned sector on the back of the form, page 9-11. 



9-9 



FM 23-10 




s 








s 


S"g 


o 
o 


C k. M 


* 


2G . 


m 


a < r- 


H | 


Ol 


U M 

M 


£ U A 

> U 


M 3 

5 * 


o 2 a 



H 

s 



if" 



n < n * 

O r4 



i ■ u * 

10 • « 

* • a U « 

■« 4> • 3 a « 

> 3 O g C 

■i « • 3 w M 

3 > -H O O J 

« u u > > * 



S2 

as 



a 



<o t- m as ^ 



* 




















H * — . 

HO T, 

a:? 


3 


r 
J 


a 


3 




3 


o 


9 


1 


s* 


xl 



















Din*io>6r^»ot^ 



i 



"Si 2 

H + 



- w »l t* 1 " * 



2. 



n ^ m * r» co o\ 






S 

-i 

3 



Figure 9-4. Example of completed DA Form 7328-R, 
Range Estimation Exercise Scorecard (front). 



9-10 



FM 23-10 




Figure 9-4. Example of completed DA Form 7328-R, 
Range Estimation Exercise Scorecard (back) (continued). 



9-11 



FM 23-10 



g. Land Navigation. This exercise develops the snipers' proficiency 
in specific field techniques such as movement, land navigation, and 
radiotelephone procedure. Snipers must move from a starting point to a 
specific location and then report. During this exercise, snipers should be 
fully equipped. (See Chapter 2.) To provide training under varied 
conditions, this exercise should be conducted at least twice, once during 
daylight and once during limited visibility. 

(1) This exercise can beheld at the same time as the firing exercises. 
Half of the training class or group could conduct the land navigation 
exercise, while the other half conducts the firing exercise. When they 
finish, they change over. 

(2) Snipers are assembled at the starting point and instructed on the 
mission objective, the observation positions, and the radio call signs. 
Trainers conduct an equipment check and an exercise briefing. 
This exercise requires snipers to move from the starting point to the 
designated location in less than two hours. They are instructed to avoid 
the observation positions, which represent the enemy. They must report 
their location every 15 minutes and their arrival at the destination site. 
A team starts the exercise with 100 points. The following point deductions 
are made for errors: 

(a) Take 1 point off for each minute over the authorized two hours. 

(b) Take 3 points off for every 5 meters that the sniper misses the 
designated destination. 

(c) Take 5 points off for each instance of improper radio procedure 
or reporting. 

(d) Take 10 points off for each time the sniper is seen by someone in 
the observation positions. 

(e) Take 100 points off for being lost and failing to complete the exercise. 

(3) At the end of this exercise, the trainer critiques the snipers' 
performance. 

h. Memory Enhancement Exercise (KIM Game). A KIM game exercise 
consists of 10 variable military items on a table, covered with a blanket poncho, 
or anything suitable. Snipers observe the objects when uncovered but 
cannot touch the items or talk during the exercise. (Figure 9-5 is an 
example of a locally fabricated KIM game exercise scoresheet format.) 

(1) After a prescribed time, the items are covered, and the snipers 
write their observations on a score sheet. They write the details that 
accurately describe the object, omitting unnecessary words. There are 
many variations that can be incorporated into a KIM game, such as PT, an 
extended amount of time between observing and recording, distractions 



9-12 



FM 23-10 



while observing and recording, or the use of different methods to 
display items. For example instead of a blanket uses towel or slides. At the 
end of the time limit, snipers turn in the score sheets, and trainers identify 
each item. Snipers describe each object in the following categories: 

(a) Size: The sniper describes the object by giving the rough 
dimensions in a known unit of measure or in relation to a known object. 

(b) Shape: The sniper describes the object by giving the shape such 
as round, square, or oblong. 

(c) Color: The sniper records the color of the object. 

(d) Condition: The sniper describes the object by giving the general 
or unusual condition of the object such as new, worn, or dented. 

(e) Appears to be: The sniper describes what the object appears to 
be such as an AK-47 round or radio handset. 



NAME 


KIM GAME EXERCISE 

: BAlUry j. WIUUA»V\ DATE 1 APR 93 










ROSd' {»to 

TEAM# A 

KIMS GAME # G"l 


SCORE 








1 


SIZE 


SHAPE 


COLOR 


CONDITION 


APPEARS TO BE 


r^'xi- 


fc==. 


»w°tfaj 


SCKV 


STAfL£S 


2 


jW< 


P=^ 


6et.O 


se«.v 


MHil-«<«U»tSAi 


3 


H"*€*$" 




CA»*o 


sbrv 


Bpu cap 


4 


\o'*T*<*' 


fe 


BUH* 


$BR>t 


JiweiE BddT 


5 


-£*&*H* 


<£<0 


QlMAC 


&WW 


pvs-4- 


6 


!fc"* \* Y 


ft 


&u»<* 


UN*»^ 


0-5 PIA/A* 


7 


ti*M 


Q 


T7»N 


scav 


fARPLUtfltee 


8 


-£»•£ *V 


®C3 


GfeE&J 


UN&& 


CfirAPAS* 


9 


3VZ'*r 


CO 

m 


<&&* 


SeRV 


/}r*M0 P«i»dH 


10 


avv^' 




Gflktd 


UNSeRM 




yi« - * | |fc f 1 *-M 


piv7»t wcr 



Figure 9-5. Example of suggested format for KIM game 
exercise score sheet. 



9-13 



FM 23-10 



(2) Snipers receive 1/2 point for indicating that there was an item 
with some sort of description and the other 1/2 point for either exactly 
naming the item or giving a sufficiently detailed description using the 
categories listed above. The description must satisify the trainer to the 
extent that the sniper had never seen the object before. The total possible 
score is 10 points. Experience in the exercise, time restraints, and 
complexity or the exercise determines a passing score. This is the trainer's 
judgment based on his own experience in KIM games (Figure 9-6). 
The first few games should be strictly graded, emphasizing details. 
When the snipers are familiar with the game pattern, the trainer may 
make changes. The last game of the training should be identical to 
the first. In this way, the sniper can see if he improved. 



KIM GAME SCHEDULE 


NO. 


OBSERVE 
(minutes) 


RECORD 
(minutes) 


REMARKS 


1 


2:00 


3:00 


NO DISTRACTIONS 


2 


2:00 


3:00 


NOISE DURING RECORDING 


3 


1:50 


2:50 


FIRE BLANK WHILE RECORDING 


4 


1:50 


2:50 


PT BETWEEN OBSERVE/RECORD 


5 


1:30 


2:30 


2-HOUR DELAY BETWEEN 
OBSERVE/RECORD 


6 


REPEAT GAME NO. 1 



Figure 9-6. Example of suggested KIM game schedule. 

i. Communications. Snipers must be highly trained in using the SOI 
and proper communication procedures. Maintaining communication is 
a primary factor in mission success. Areas of emphasis should include 
the following: 

• Operation and maintenance of radios. 

• Entering the net. 

• Authentication. 



9-14 



FM 23-10 



• Encoding/decoding. 

• Encrypting/decrypting. 

• Antenna repair. 

• Field-expedient antennas. 

9-2. ADDITIONAL SKILLS SUSTAINMENT 

Other than basic skills, the trainer must include additional skills into the 
sniper sustainment training program. Once mastered, these skills 
enhance the sniper's chance or surviving and accomplishing the mission, 
a. Call for Fire. With advanced camouflage and movement techniques, 
snipers can move about the battlefield undetected. Snipers that have a 
working knowledge in the use and application of artillery, NGF, and CAS 
will bean asset to the commander. (See FM 6-30.) 

(1) Artillery fire. Artillery fire is the secondary weapon of the sniper. 
Each sniper should master call-for-fire procedures (Figure 9-7, 
page 9-16), target location methods (Figure 9-8, page 9-17), and 
indirect-weapon system capabilities (Table 9-1, page 9-19). Separate 
radio stations mayheset up with one being a simulated FDC. After the 
FDC receives the call for fire, it determines how the target will be attacked. 
That decision is announced to the FO as a message to the observer, which 
consists of three elements as follows: 

• Unit to fire for effect. 

• Any changes to requests in the call for fire. 

• Method of fire (number of rounds to be fired). 

Snipers can simulate calls for fire using the example format in Figure 9-7, 
page 9-16. 

(2) Naval gunfire and close air support. In today's battlefield of 
"high-tech" munitions and delivery systems, a working knowledge of 
acquiring NGF and CAS (helicopter and fixed-wing) enables snipers to 
inflict heavy damage on enemy forces. 



9-15 



FM 23-10 



1. OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION 

2. WARNING ORDER 

a. Type of Mission. 

(1) Adjust fire. 

(2) Fire for effect. 

(3) Suppress. 

b. Size of Element to Fire. 

c. Method of Target Location. 

(1) Grid. 

(2) Polar. 

(3) Shift from a known point. 

3. TARGET LOCATION 

a. Grid. Six-digit grid coordinates. 

b. Polar. Direction and distance from the FO to the target. 

c. Shift. Direction to the target. 

(1) Lateral shift L/R 

(2) Range shift ± 

(3) Vertical shift U/D 

4. TARGET DESCRIPTION 

5. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT 

a. Type of Adjustment. 

(1) Area fire.* 

• Bracketing.* 

• Creeping (DANGER CLOSE). 

(2) Precision fire. 

b. Trajectory.* 
c Ammunition. 

(1) Projectile.* 

(2) Fuze.* 

(3) Volume of fire.* 

d. Distribution.* 



Figure 9-7. Call-for-fire-format. 

9-16 



FM 23-10 



6. METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL 

a. Method of Fire. 

(1) Center platoon/center section. 

(2) Battery/platoon right (left). 

(3) Time interval. 

b. Method of Control. 

(1) Fire when ready.* 

(2) At my command. 

(3) Cannot observe. 

(4) Time on target. 
♦Standard 



Figure 9-7. Call-for-f ire-format (continued). 



1. GRID (a) Determine a six-digit grid coordinate to 
the designated target. 

(b) Determine the grid direction 

(observer-target) to the target, and ensure 
that the O-T direction is sent to the FDC 
after the call for fire is completed before 
the first correction. 

1 POLAR (a) Determine the O-T direction to the 
target from the FO's position. 

(b) Determine the distance from the FO's 
position to the target. 

3. SHIFT (a) Determine the O-T direction to the target. 

(b) Determine the lateral shift from the known 
point to the target. 

W = RxM (mil relation). 

W = Width of lateral shift in meters. 



Figure 9-8. Target location methods. 

9-17 



FM 23-10 



Example: 



R = Distance to the known point divided 
by 1,000. When shifting from a known 
point, the R is rounded to the 
nearest tenth. 

M = Measured angle in mils between the 
known point and the target. 

2,800 (distance to known point) = 2/8 = R 
1,000 

M = 130 mils (measured angle from the 
known point to the target). 



Therefore: W = R(2.8) x M (130) 

W = 364 or LEFT 360 (nearest 10 mils) 

(c) Determine the range shift from the known 
point to the target. 

Example: 2,800 (distance to the known point) 
-1,700 (distance to the target) 

1,100 meters or DROP 1,100 meters 
(nearest 100 meters) 



Figure 9-8. Target location methods (continued). 



9-18 



FM 23-10 



WEAPON 


MAXIMUM RANGE 
(METERS) 


MINIMUM 

RANOE 
(METERS) 


MAXIMUM RATE 

(ROUNDS PER 

MINUTE FIRST 

MINUTE) 


SUSTAINED RATE 

(ROUNDS PER 

MINUTE) 


FIELD ARTILLERY 


105-mm HOWITZER 
M101A1, TOWED 


11,000 
14,500 (RAP) 





10 


3 


105-mm HOWITZER 
M102, TOWED 


11,500 
14,500 (RAP) 





10 


3 


155-mm HOWTTZER 
M114A1, TOWED 


14,600 
14,600 





4 


1 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M114A2, TOWED 


14,600 
19,400 (RAP) 





4 


1 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M 198, TOWED 


24,000 
30,000 (RAP) 





4 


TEMPERATURE 
DEPENDENT 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M100.SP 


14,600 





4 


1 


155-mm HOWTTZER 
M109A1/A2/A3, SP 


18,100 
23,500 (RAP) 





4 


1* 


175-mm GUN 
M107, SP 


32,800 





1.5 


0.5 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M1 15, TOWED 


16,800 





1.5 


0.5 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M110, SP 


16,800 





1.5 


0.5 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M110A1.SP 


20,600 





1.5 


0.5 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M110A2, SP 


22,800 





1.5 


0.5 


MORTARS 


60-mm MORTAR 


3,490 (HE) 
1,472 (WP) 
931 OLLUM) 


70 (HE) 

33 (WP) 

725 (ILLUM) 


30 


20 


81 -mm MORTAR 


4,595 (HE) 
4,850 (HE), track 
4,737 (WP) 


72 (HE) 

70 (WP) 

100 OLLUM) 


30 
30 


20 FOR 2 MINUTES, 
THEN 8 MINUTES 


107-mm MORTAR 


6,840 (HE) 
5,850 (WP) 
5,490 (ILLUM) 


770 (HE) 
920 (WP) 
400 OLLUM) 


18 


9 FOR 5 MINUTES, 
THEN 3 MINUTES 


* CHG: ONE ROUND PER MINUTE FOR 60 MINUTES, THEN ONE ROUND EVERY 3 MINUTES 
THEREAFTER. 



Table 9-1. Indirect-weapon systems capabilities. 



9-19 



FM 23-10 



WEAPON 


MAXIMUM RANGE 
(METERS) 


MINIMUM 

RANOE 

(METERS) 


MAXIMUM RATE 

(ROUNDS PER 

MINUTE FIRST 

MINUTE) 


SUSTAINED RATE 

(ROUNDS PER 

MINUTE) 


NAVAL GUNFIRE 


5-lnch/3e 


15,000 





20 


15 


5-inch/54 


22,500 





30 


20 


16-lnch/SO 


37,000 





1 


1 


WEAPON 


TRAVERSE LIMITS 

(mite) SHELL/FUZE COMBINATIONS" 


FIELD ARTILLERY 


105-mm HOWITZER 


409R/400L 


APICM, HE/PD, HE/DELAY, HE TRAINING INERT, HE/VT, 
HE/CP, RAP/PD, RAP/DELAY, WP/PD, WP/DELAY, 
WP/TRAINING INERT, SMOKE, ILLUM 


105-mm HOWTTZER 
M102, TOWED 


6400 


SAME AS ABOVE 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M114A1, TOWED 


448R/418L 


CLQP, APICM, HE/PD, HE/DELAY, HE/TRAINING INERT, 
HE/VT, HE/CP, WP/PD, WP/DELAY, WP/TRAINING INERT, 
SMOKE, COLORED SMOKE, ILLUM 


155-mm HOWITZER 
Ml 14A2, TOWED 


SAME AS ABOVE 


CLGP, DPICM, RAAMS, ADAM, APICM, HE/PD, HE/DELAY, 
HE/TRAINING INERT, HE/VT, HE/CP, RAP/PD, RAP/DELAY, 
WP/PD, WP/DELAY, WP/TRAINING INERT, SMOKE, 
COLORED SMOKE, ILLUM 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M198, TOWED 


400R/4O0L 
6400 SPEED 


SAME AS ABOVE 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M10B, SP 


6400 


SAME AS ABOVE 


155-mm HOWITZER 
M10SA1/2/3, SP 


6400 


SAME AS ABOVE 


175-mm QUN 
M107, SP 


553FV533L 


HE/PD, HE/DELAY, HE/TRAINING INERT, HEAT 


203-mm HOWITZER 
Ml 15, TOWED 


SAME AS ABOVE 


APICM, HE/PD, HE/DELAY, HE/TRAINING INERT, HE/VT, 
HE/CP 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M110, SP 


SAME AS ABOVE 


SAME AS ABOVE 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M110A1.SP 


SAME AS ABOVE 


DPICM, APICM, HE/PD, HE/DELAY, HE/TRAINING INERT, 
HE/VT, RAP/PD, RAP/DELAY 


203-mm HOWITZER 
M110A2, SP 


SAME AS ABOVE 


SAME AS ABOVE 


" THESE REFLECT ONLY THOSE SHELL/FUZE COMBINATIONS THE OBSERVER MAY REQUEST- 
NOT ALL THOSE AVAILABLE. 



Table 9-1. Indirect-weapon systems capabilities (continued). 



9-20 



FM 23-10 



WEAPON 


TRAVERSE LIMITS 


SHELL/FUZE COMBINATIONS** 


MORTARS 


60-mm MORTAR 


2S0R/2SOL 


HE/PO, HE/DELAY, HEAT, WP/PD, WP/DELAY, 
WP/TRAININQ INERT, ILLUM 


81 -mm MORTAR 


95FVB9L 
8400 TRACK 


HE/PD, HE/DELAY, HEAT, WP/PD, WP/DELAY, ILLUM 


107-mm MORTAR 


125R/12SL 
6400 TRACK 


HE/PO, HE/DELAY, HE/TRAINING INERT, HE/VT, WP/PD, 
WP/DELAY, ILLUM 


120-mm MORTAR 






NAVAL GUNFIRE 


5-lnch/38 


8400*** 


HE/PD, HE/TRAINING INERT, HEAT, HE/CP, AP/DELAY, 
WP/PD, WP/TRAINING INERT, ILLUM 


5-lnch/54 


8400*** 


SAME AS ABOVE 


167-inch/50 


6400*** 


HE/PD, HE/TRAINING INERT, HEAT, HE/CP, AP/DELAY 


• CHG: ONE ROUND PER MINUTE FOR 60 MINUTES, THEN ONE ROUND EVERY 3 MINUTES 
THEREAFTER 

** THESE REFLECT ONLY THOSE SHELUFUZE COMBINATIONS THE OBSERVER MAY REQUEST- 
NOT ALL THOSE AVAILABLE. 

"* WITH INCREASED MINIMUM RANGES WHEN FIRING OVER SHIP'S STRUCTURES. 



Table 9-1. Indirect-weapon systems capabilities (continued). 

b. Insertion/Extraction Techniques. Practical application of 

insertion/extraction techniques enables snipers to accomplish its mission 
and to exfiltrate with confidence. Leaders should tailor these techniques 
to unit assets; however, a working knowledge of all techniques listed in 
Chapter 7 is an invaluable tool to the team. 

c. Tracking/Counterattacking. Footprints found by enemy trackers 
may indicate that snipers are in the area. A knowledge of countertracking 
techniques is a valuable tool to snipers not only to remain undetected but 
also to collect battlefield information. (See Chapter 8.) 

d. Survival Skills. Survival training, incorporated with evasion and 
escape training, will better prepare the sniper in contingency planning 
during exfiltration and, possibly, infiltration. Judging enemy reaction is 
an impossible task therefore, the sniper may be forced to live off the land 
until linkup can be established with friendly forces. 



9-21 



FM 23-10 

e. First Aid. Adequate first-aid training can mean the difference 
between life and death until proper medical attention can be given. 

f. Communications Reporting Procedures. A lack of timely, 
detailed reporting of battlefielcf information can hinder the overall success 
of maneuvering units. Properly formatted information (Chapter 6), 
precoordinated with communications personnel, ensures timely and 
accurate intelligence gathering. Snipers must train to use information 
reporting formats and procedures. 

9-3. TRAINING NOTES 

Snipers should be trained IAW DA Pamphlet 350-38. Training includes 
knowledge of equipment, ammunition, range and terrain requirements, 
and techniques of training and sustaining the skills of the sniper team. 

a. Equipment. During all FIXs, each sniper should be equipped as 
indicated in Chapter 2. Team equipment should be available as needed. 

b. Known Distance Range Requirements. A standard known-distance 
range, graduated in 100-meter increments from 100 to 1,000 meters, 
is required for zeroing and zero confirmation exercises. The target 
detection range facilities and procedures should permit observation and 
range determination to 800 meters. 

c. Field Firing Range Requirements. The ideal field firing range 
should be on terrain that has been left in its natural state. The range 
should be a minimum of 800 meters in depth with provisions along the 
firing line for several sniper positions within each lane to provide a slightly 
different perspective of the target area (Table 9-2). Where time prevents 
construction of a separate range, it may be necessary to superimpose this 
facility over an existing field firing range. 

(1) Iron maidens can be made out of 3/4-inch steel plate with a 
supporting frame. They should be cut out in the form or silhouettes 
20 inches wide and 40 inches high. By painting these targets white, the 
sniper can easily detect where the bullet impacts on the target. 

(2) Placing targets inside of window openings gives the sniper 
experience engaging targets that can be founain an urban environment. 
This is done by cutting a 15-inch by 15-inch hole in the center of a 36-inch 
by 48-inch plywood board. Then an E-type silhouette is emplaced on a 
hit-kill mechanism 2 to 4 meters behind the plywood. 

(3) Targets placed inside a bunker-type position allows the sniper to 
gain experience firing into darkened openings. This position can be built 
with logs and sandbags with an E-type silhouette on a hit-kill mechanism 
placed inside. 



9-22 



FM 23-10 



METERS 


TYPE TARGET 


200 


E-TYPE SILHOUETTE, HIT-KILL MECHANISM. 


300 


IRON MAIDEN SILHOUETTE; E-TYPE 
SILHOUETTE, HIT-KILL MECHANISM; MOVING 
TARGET MECHANISM. 


325 


E-TYPE SILHOUETTE, HIT-KILL MECHANISM. 


375 


E-TYPE SILHOUETTE, HIT-KILL MECHANISM, 
EMPLACED INSIDE A WINDOW. 


400 


E-TYPE SILHOUETTE, HIT-KILL MECHANISM, 
EMPLACED INSIDE A BUNKER. 


500 


IRON MAIDEN SILHOUETTE; MOVING TARGET 
MECHANISM, TRACKED VEHICLE WITH A 
HIT-KILL MECHANISM IN THE COMMANDER'S 
CUPOLA. 


600 to 1,000 


IRON MAIDEN SILHOUETTES. 



Table 9-2. Field firing range requirements. 

(4) Moving targets can be used at distances between 300 and 500 meters 
to give the sniper practical experience and to develop skill in engaging a 
moving target. Two targets, one moving laterally and one moving at an 
oblique, present a challenge to the sniper. 

(5) Targets should be arranged to provide varying degrees of 
concealment to show enemy personnel or situations in logical 
locations (Figure 9-9, page 9-24). The grouping of two or more targets 
to indicate a crew-served weapon situation or a small unit is acceptable. 
Such arrangements, provided the targets can be marked, may require 
selective engagement by the sniper. The automatic target devices provide 
for efficient range operation and scoring. 



9-23 



FM 23-10 




' 1000 



LEGEND: 

A IRON MAIDEN 
I — • MOVING TARGET 

POP-UP TARGET 

El. TANK WITH POP-UP TARGET 



a 

A. 



Window with pop-up target 



BUNKER WITH POP-UP TARGET 



Figure 9-9. Lane layout. 



9-24 



FM 23-10 

9-4. EXAMPLE 5-DAY SNIPER SUSTAINMENT 
TRAINING PROGRAM 

An example of a 5-day sniper sustainment training program is as follows: 

DAY1 

TASK 1: Select sniper team routes and positions. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of selection of routes and positions, a 
situational sniper mission with a target area location that requires a 
minimum movement of 3,000 meters, a military map, a protractor, a 
felt-tip pen, an 8-inch-square clear plastic overlay, and one sheet of 
letter-size paper. 

STANDARDS: Select and plot a primary and alternate route, objective 
rally point, and tentative final firing position that provides the best cover 
and concealment. 

1. Prepare overlay with two grid reference marks; primary and 
alternate routes with arrows indicating direction of travel; minimum 
of three checkpoints, numbered in order; ORP; and a tentative final 
firing position. 

2. Prepare a written log of movement. The sniper data book will 
contain the from-to grid coordinates, magnetic azimuths, distance, 
checkpoint number, objective rally point, and tentative final 
firing position. 

3. Prepare overlay and written log of movement within 30 minutes. 

TASK 2: Move while using individual sniper movement techniques. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of sniper movement techniques, a sniper 
weapon, a ghillie suit, and a flat, open area that allows trainers to observe 
movement techniques. 

STANDARDS: Move correctly while using the designated movement 
technique. 

1. Sniper low crawl. 

2. Medium crawl. 

3. High crawl. 

4. Hands-and-knee crawl. 

5. Walking. 



9-25 



FM 23-10 

NOTE: Trainers designate movement techniques and critique 
snipers on their movement. 

TASK 3: React to enemy contact while moving as a member of a sniper team. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of sniper team movement techniques and 
reactions to enemy contact, sniper team's basic equipment and weapons, 
and an area of varying terrain with at least one danger area. 

STANDARDS: React correctly to designated situations or danger areas. 

1. Visual contact. 

2. Ambush. 

3. Indirect fire. 

4. Air attack. 

5. Danger area (linear and open area). 

NOTE: Trainers designate situations and critique sniper teams 
on movement. 

TASK 4: Describe target detection, selection, and observation techniques. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of target detection, selection, and 
observation techniques. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, techniques used to observe, 
detect, and select targets. 

TASK 5: Identify enemy uniforms, equipment, and vehicles. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of pictures or slides of enemy uniforms, 
equipment, and vehicles. 

STANDARDS: Identify 7 of 10 enemy uniforms or rank insignia, 7 of 10 
pieces of enemy equipment, and 7 of 10 enemy vehicles. 

TASK 6: Describe range estimation techniques. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of range estimation techniques used 
by snipers. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, range estimation 
techniques used by the sniper. 

1. Eye methods. 

2. Use of binoculars. 

3. Use of M3A scope/M49 observation telescope. 



9-26 



FM 23-10 

TASK 7: Prepare a sniper range card. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of sniper range cards, a suitable target 
area, basic sniper equipment, and a sniper range card. 

STANDARDS: Prepare a sniper range card complete with— 

1. Grid coordinates of position. 

2. Target reference point(s) (azimuth, distance, and description). 

3. Left/right limits with azimuths. 

4. Ranges throughout area. 

5. Major terrain features. 

6. Method of obtaining range/name. 

7. Weather data. 

TASK 8: Prepare a military sketch. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of sniper military sketching, a suitable 
area or object to sketch, and a blank military sketch sheet. 

STANDARDS: Prepare a sketch complete with— 

1. Grid coordinates of position. 

2. Magnetic azimuth through center of sketch. 

3. Sketch name and number. 

4. Scale of sketch. 

5. Remarks section. 

6. Name/rank. 

7. Date/time. 

8. Weather data. 

TASK 9: Maintain a sniper data book. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of the sniper data book and 20 blank 
sheets stapled together as a booklet. 

STANDARDS: Maintain a sniper data book with a chronological listing 
of events that take place during the next three days and containing 
the following: 

1. Grid coordinates of position. 

2. Observer's name. 



9-27 



FM 23-10 

3. Date/time/visibility. 

4. Sheet number/number of total sheets. 

5. Series number/time and grid coordinate of each event. 

6. Event. 

7. Action taken. 

NOTE: Trainers collect the sniper data books in three days. 

DAY 2 

TASK 1: Describe the fundamentals of sniper marksmanship. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of sniper marksmanship fundamentals. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, the fundamentals of sniper 
marksmanship. 

1. Position. 

2. Breath control. 

3. Aiming. 

4. Trigger control. 

TASK 2: Describe the effects of weather on ballistics. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of the effects of weather on ballistics. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, the effects of weather 
on ballistics. 

TASK 3: Describe the sniper team method of engaging targets. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of the sniper team method of engaging 
targets. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, the sniper team method of 
engaging targets. 

TASK 4: Describe methods used to engage moving targets. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of methods used to engage moving targets. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, methods used to engage 
moving targets. 

TASK 5: Describe methods used to engage targets at various ranges 
without adjusting the scope's elevation. 



9-28 



FM 23-10 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of methods used to engage targets at 
various ranges without adjusting the scope's elevation. 

STANDARDS: Describe, orally or in writing, the methods used to engage 
targets at various ranges without adjusting the scope's elevation. 

TASK 6: Zero rifle scope. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, an M49 observation telescope, 
a suitable firing range, and 7 rounds of 7.62-mm special ball (Ml 18) 
ammunition. 

STANDARDS: Zero rifle scope within 7 rounds. 

DAY 3 

TASK 1: Zero iron sights. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, a suitable firing range, and 
12 rounds of 7.62-mm special hall ammunition. 

STANDARDS: Zero iron sights on a sniper weapon within 12 rounds. 

TASK 2: Engage moving targets. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, an M49 observation telescope, 
a suitable firing range, and 10 rounds of 7.62-mm special ball 
(M118) ammunition. 

STANDARDS: Engage 10 moving targets, from 300 to 500 meters, 

achieving a minimum or 7 hits. 

TASK 3: Estimate range. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon system (M24), M19 binoculars, 
and 10 targets out to 800 meters. 

STANDARDS: Correctly estimate range to 7 of the 10 targets using eye 
estimation (± 15 percent), binoculars (± 10 percent), or the M24 sniper 
weapon (± 5 percent). 

TASK 4: Detect targets. 

CONDITIONS: Given a suitable area with 10 military objects, 
binoculars, M49 observation telescope, and a scorecard. 

STANDARDS: Detect, plot, and describe 7 of 10 military objects within 
40 minutes. 

TASK 5: Participate in a concealment exercise. 

9-29 



FM 23-10 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, ghillie suit, three 7.62-mm blank 
rounds of ammunition, an area to conceal a sniper position, and 
10 minutes to prepare. 

STANDARDS: Without being detected, occupy a position, identify, and 
fire three blank rounds at a target (located 100 to 200 meters away) who 
is equipped with binoculars and an M49 observation telescope. 
Must score 7 of 10 points (Figure 9-10). 



IF THE SNIPER- 


POINTS 




GIVEN 


DEDUCTED 


TOTAL 


WAS DETECTED WITHOLrT THE AID OF 
OPTICS (FIRST 2 MINUTES) 


2 





2 


WAS DETECTED WITH THE AID OF 
OPTICS (18 MINUTES) 


1 





3 


WAS DETECTED WHEN ASSISTANT 
TRAINER IS WITHIN 10 FEET OF SNIPER 


1 





4 


PROPERLY IDENTIFIED THE NUMBER 
WITHIN 30 SECONDS 


1 





5 


FAILED TO PROPERLY IDENTIFY THE 
NUMBER 





3 


2 


FIRED FIRST SHOT, NOT DETECTED 


4 





6 


FIRED SECOND SHOT, NOT DETECTED 


1 





7 


MAINTAINED STABLE FIRING POSITION 
(SUPPORT) 


2 





9 


PROPERLY ADJUSTED WEAPON'S SCOPE 
FOR RANGE AND WINDAGE 


1 





10 


NOTES: 1. IF THE SNIPER IS CAUGHT TRYING TO IDENTIFY THE NUMBER 
SCORE 4 POINTS. 

2. IF MUZZLE BLAST/FLASH IS DETECTED, DEDUCT 1 POINT FROM 
TOTAL SCORE. 

3. FAILING TO COMPLY WITH TRAINING STANDARDS AND 
OBJECTIVES (SUCH AS UNNECESSARY MOVEMENT, PREMATURE 
FIRE, OUTSIDE OF PRESCRIBED BOUNDARIES) WILL RESULT IN 
TERMINATION OF THE EXERCISE AND A SCORE OF ZERO. 



9-30 



FM 23-10 



DAY 4 

TASK 1: Quality on Qualification Table No. 1. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, M49 observation telescope, a 
suitable firing range, Qualification Table No. 1 scorecard, and 40 rounds 
of 7.62-mm special ball (Ml 18) ammunition. 

STANDARDS: Engage targets from 200 to 700 meters, achieving a 
minimum of 140 points. 

TASK 2: Engage targets in MOPP. 

CONDITIONS: During daylight, given a sniper weapon, suitable firing 
range, MOPP suit, complete M25-series protective mask, 

M49 observation telescope, ana 30 rounds of 7.62-mm special ball (M118) 
ammunition. 

STANDARDS: While in MOPP, engage targets at 300 to 800 meters, 
achieving a minimum of 105 points. 

TASK 3: Participate in a concealed movement exercise. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, ghillie suit, two 7.62-mm blank 
rounds of ammunition, and a suitable area 1,000 meters long that 
is observable. 

STANDARDS: Within 4 hours, move 600 to 800 meters; without being 
detected, occupy a position, identify, and fire two blank rounds at an 
enemy target who is equipped with binoculars and an M49 observation 
telescope. Must score 7 of 10 points (Figure 9-11). 



9-31 



FM 23-10 



IF THE SNIPER- 


POINTS 




GIVEN 


DEDUCTED 


TOTAL 


FAILED TO CROSS THE FFL 











CROSSED THE FFL 


6 





6 


FIRED FIRST SHOT, NOT DETECTED 


2 





8 


WAS NOT DETECTED WHEN ASSISTANT 
TRAINER IS WITHIN 10 FEET OF SNIPER 


2 





10 


PROPERLY IDENTIFIED THE 1ST NUMBER 


2 





12 


WAS NOT DETECTED WHEN ASSISTANT 
TRAINER IS WITHIN 5 FEET OF SNIPER 


2 





14 


FIRED SECOND SHOT, NOT DETECTED 


2 





16 


PROPERLY IDENTIFIED THE 2D NUMBER 


2 





18 


MAINTAINED GOOD CAMOUFLAGE 


1 





19 


MAINTAINED STABLE FIRING POSITION 
(SUPPORT) 


1 





20 


NOTES: 1 . IF MUZZLE BLAST/FLASH IS DETECTED, DEDUCT 1 POINT FROM 
THE TOTAL SCORE. 

2. FAILING TO COMPLY WITH TRAINING STANDARDS AND 
OBJECTIVES (SUCH AS UNNECESSARY MOVEMENT, PREMATURE 
FIRE, OUTSIDE OF PRESCRIBED BOUNDARIES) WILL RESULT IN 
TERMINATION OF THE EXERCISE AND A SCORE OF ZERO. 



Figure 9-1 1 . Scoring for concealed movement exercise. 

DAY 5 

TASK 1: Qualify on Qualification Table No. 2. 

CONDITIONS: Given a sniper weapon, M49 observation telescope, a 
suitable firing range, Qualification Table No. 2 scorecard, and 40 rounds 
of 7.62-mm special ball (Mil 8) ammunition. 

STANDARDS: Engage targets at 300 to 900 meters, achieving a 
minimum of 140 points. 

TASK 2: Call for fire. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of call-for-fire procedures, two 

AN/PRC-77 radios, and a fire mission. 



9-32 



FM 23-10 

STANDARDS: Transmit the fire mission using proper radio procedures 
and the elements of the call-for-fire mission in sequence: 

1. Observer identification. 

2. Warning order. 

3. Target location. 

4. Target description. 

5. Method of engagement (optional). 

6. Method of fire and control (optional). 

TASK 3: Locate target by grid coordinates. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of locating targets using the 
grid-coordinate method, a map of the target area/binoculars, compass, 
and a target. 

STANDARDS: Determine and announce the six-digit coordinates of the 
target (within a 250-meter tolerance) within 30 seconds. 

TASK 4: Locate a target by polar plot. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of target locating using the polar-plot 
method, a map of the target area, binoculars, a compass, and a target. 

STANDARDS: Locate the target within 250 meters of the actual location. 
Announce the target location within 30 seconds after identification. 
Express direction to the nearest 10 roils and within 100 mils of actual 
direction. Express distance to the nearest 100 meters. 

TASK 5: Locate target by shift from a known point. 

CONDITIONS: Given a review of locating targets using the shift from a 
known-point method, a map of the target area, binoculars, a compass, a 
known point, and a target. 

STANDARDS: Locate the target within 250 meters of the actual location 
and announce the target location within 30 seconds after identification. 
Express direction to the nearest 10 roils and within 100 roils of the 
actual direction. Express right or left corrections to the nearest 10 meters 
and range corrections to the nearest 100 meters. 

TASK 6: Participate in a land navigation exercise during daylight. 

CONDITIONS: Given a navigation course with at least four legs no less 
than 800 meters apart. 



9-33 



FM 23-10 



STANDARDS: Navigate the course without being detected by the 
observer-instructor. Preparing sketches, range cards, and or logs from the 
sniper data book can also be incorporated into the exercise. 

NIGHT 5 
TASK: Participate in a land navigation exercise during nightfall. 

CONDITIONS: Given a navigation course (FM 21-26) with at least three 
legs no less than 500 meters apart. Observer-instructors can be placed on 
the course to detect any violations of noise and light discipline and deduct 
points from the sniper's score for violations. 

STANDARDS: Navigate the course without being detected. 

9-5. EMERGENCY DEPLOYMENT READINESS EXERCISE 

Trainers use T&EOs from ARTEP 7-92-MTP: Move Tactically (7-5-1825); 
Select/Engage Targets (7-5-1869); Select/Occupy Firing Position 
(7-5-1871); Estimate Range (7-5-1872); and Debrief (7-5-1809) for 
additional sustainment training. An example of a battalion EDRE follows: 

TIME ACTION 

0400 Battalion alerts sniper teams. 

1. CQ relays uniform and packing list. 

2. Sniper teams have two hours to report to 
battalion. 

3. Sniper team leaders report to SEO when all of 
the team is accounted for. 

4. Sniper team receives FRAGO from the SEO. 

0600 Snipers depart battalion area by air, truck, or 

road march. 
0800 Sniper teams arrive at range. 

1. Sniper teams receive range/safety briefing. 

2. Snipers receive issued ammunition. 

3. Snipers zero weapons. 

4. Sniper teams field/record fire on a range with 
targets positioned from 200 to 900 meters. 

1100 Sniper teams depart range; move to concealed 

movement site by truck, road march, or tactical 
movement by teams. 



9-34 



FM 23-10 

TIME ACTION 

1200 Sniper teams arrive at conceded movement site. 

1. Sniper teams receive briefing. 

2. Site should be 800 to 1,000 meters long 
positioned with a observer- instructor as a target 
at one end with field table, M19 binoculars, 
M49 observation telescope, 8-inch by 8-inch 
international orange panels with white 5-inch 
number (1 to 9) painted on them, and two 
AN/PRC-77 radios for observer and assistant 
trainer. 

3. Sniper will have four hours to move into his 
FFr, 50 to 200 meters from observer-instructor, 
and fire his first shot. 

4. Sniper will have 30 seconds in which to identify 
number. 

5. Sniper will fire second shot. 

NOTE: All information is to be recorded in the sniper data book. 

6. The entire exercise will be conducted without the 
sniper being detected by the observer-instructor. 

1600 Sniper teams depart for day/night land navigation 

exercise. 

1. Sniper teams start the exercise from a concealed 
movement site. 

2. Sniper teams will be required to move to three 
different points. At each point they will perform 
one of the following 

• Draw a militaty sketch. 

• Draw a range card. 

• Do a target detection exercise. 

• Collect information/data. 

3. All movement will be performed without being 
detected. 

2000 Night navigation exercise. 

1. Sniper teams start the exercise from the 
command post. 



9-35 



FM 23-10 



TIME ACTION 

2. They will move undetected to three different 
points. 

3. They will perform a detection exercise with the 
use of NODS. 

4. They will record all information in the sniper 
data book. 

5. After collecting necessary data, they will move to 
an extraction point and construct a sniper hide 
position. They will prepare for target reduction. 

0500-0600 Target reduction. 

1. Upon target reduction time, the sniper team will 
prepare for extraction. 

2. At extraction time, they will return to the 
battalion area. 

3. The SEO will debrief the sniper team. 

4. The SEO will conduct an after-action review. 

NOTE: A written test could also be given as part of the EDRE. 

9-6. RECORD FIRE TABLES 

In accordance with DA Pamphlet 350-38, sniper qualification should 
occur quarterly. Sniper qualification involves the firing of two field 
fire tables. Qualification Table No. 1 grades target engagements 
primarily between 200 and 700 meters. Scores are recorded on 
DA Form 7329-R, Qualification Table No. 1 Scorecard (Figure 9-12, 
page 9-38). Qualification Table No. 2 grades on the longer ranges 
between 300 to 900 meters. Scores are recorded on DA Form 7330-R, 
Qualification Table No. 2 Scorecard (Figure 9-13, page 9-39). Although 
the sniper weapon system has an 800-meter maximum effective range, it 
can effectively hit targets at 1,000 meters. This is a challenge to the sniper 
and, with successful engagement, is a confidence builder in his ability. To 
qualify on firing tables No. 1 and No. 2, the sniper must adhere to the 
following standards: 

NOTE: Completion of the DA Forms 7329-R and 7330-R is 
self-explanatory. Blank copies of these forms are located at the 
back or this manual for local reproduction. 

• Achieve a 70 percent standard of 140 points out of a 
possible 200 points. 

9-36 



FM 23-10 

• Fire a first-round hit to equal 10 points. 

• Fire a second round if the first round misses the target. 

• Receive 5 points if the second round hits the target. 

• Receive a score of if the second round misses the target. 

• Complete firing within 30 minutes. Total all first-round hits and 
multiply by 10; total second-round hits and multiply by 5. 

• Add first-round and second-round hits for a total firing table score. 

• Meet the 70 percent standard (140 points). Trainer checks 
satisfactory or unsatisfactory. 

NOTE: Trainer and sniper sign the scorecard. 



9-37 



FM 23-10 



• H 

hi * 

s. 

* m 



n o 
o u 

H • 




■» » g *i 3 os o 

«• 3 S C 

£ H -2 a. " 



o 
a 

2S 

• * . 



>%$° 






: g a -h m v. 



MfflgO*( D 

». « 5 > o o 

_ a 5 .-h « u 

• H ~ t|,+J fc. ft 

»Sc? o 

g - * cm -« 0- r, c 

O f. 

<M >< ' 

a 



!&5. 



Mils 

_5 * Q ; 



a ** • 
« « >. 

O 3 



< « i 












ft ^ 
SO. 



P5. 



> 



K O 



4-> *» 



m 
ja 7 

u 



If 

5S 



O . 



IH 



X I* « 




goomooootnoo 

_300r»OOOOr*00 



H I H H I 



§ S 



oointnooomo© 

OOMf-OOOf-OO 



i 



i 
i 

Is 



Figure 9-12. Example of completed DA Form 7329-R, 
Qualification Table No. 1 Scorecard. 



9-38 



FM 23-10 




ES •" SG & 

« S '-IPS 

• &9-H ■ M *» 

-s~sa e c 



• " -4 3 < 

°. i -H CO . 






(0 f- 



33! 



5gS 3 

H 4J • < « 

< h o > > « 









*>. 



* 3 

St 






U 1 1 H 



* » * 



HU' 




™ Ijoooooooomo 
S ■ouiomoooono 



n i 



*X 



>\ 



X* 



o o m tn o 
o o o« t- o 
m r» n r\ w 



o o o o o o 
o o o m o tn 
in w r- r^ to co 



Figure 9-13. Example of completed DA Form 7330-R, 
Qualification Table No. 2 Scorecard. 



9-39 



FM 23-10 



9-7. M24 SNIPER MILES TRAINING 

MILES training is an invaluable tool to simulate realistic combat training. 
Other than actual combat, the sniper's best means of displaying 
effectiveness as a force multiplier is through the use of the M24 sniper 
weapon system (MILES). 

a. Characteristics of the MILES Transmitter. The M24 sniper weapon 
system MILES transmitter is a modified M16 transmitter. A special 
mounting bracket attaches the laser transmitter to the right side of the 
barrel (looking from the butt end) of the M24 and places it parallel with 
the line of bore. The laser beam output has been amplified and tightened 
to provide precision fire capability out to 1,000 meters. (For component 
information and instructions on mounting, zeroing, and operation, see 
TM 9-1265-211-10.) 

b. Training Value. Using the M24 MILES, the trainer can enhance 
sustainment training in target engagement. 

(1) Selection offering positions. Vue to transmitter modifications, the 
sniper must attain a firing position that affords clear fields of fire. 
Any obstruction (vegetation, terrain) can prevent a one-shot kill by 
deflecting or blocking the path of the laser beam. By attaining this type 
of position, the sniper will improve his observation and firing capabilities. 

(2) Target detection! selection. Using MILES against multiple/cluster 
targets requires the sniper to select the target that will have the greatest 
effect on the enemy. The trainer provides instant feedback on the sniper's 
performance. Situations may he created such as bunkers, hostage 
situations, and MOUT firing. The hit-miss indicating aspects of MILES 
are invaluable in this type of training. 

(3) Range estimation. The sniper must be highly skilled in range 
estimation (Chapter 3) to properly use the M24 sniper weapon system. 
The trainer's evaluation of this ability is as simple as the sniper pulling 
the trigger. When the range to the target is properly computed and 
elevation dialed on the M3A, one shot, either hit or miss, indicates a 
strength or weakness in the sniper's range estimation ability (if the 
fundamentals of marksmanship were properly applied). 

(4) Markmanship. A target hit (kill) with MILES is the same as one 
with live ammunition. Applying marksmanship fundamentals results in 
a first-round kill; the training value is self-evident. 

c. MILES Training Limitations. The concept of MILES is to provide 
realistic training however, MILES is limited in its capabilities as applied 
to the sniper's mission of long-range precision fire. 

(1) lack of external ballistics training. A laser is a concentrated beam of 
light emitted by the MILES transmitter. It travels from the sniper's 



9-40 



FM 23-10 



weapon undisturbed by outside forces such as temperature, humidity, 
and wind. Lack of these effects may lull the sniper into a false sense 
of confidence. The trainer should constantly reinforce the importance of 
these factors. The sniper should make a mental note of changes that 
should be applied to compensate for these effects. 

(2) Engagement of moving targets. The engagement of moving targets 
(Chapter 3) requires the sniper to establish a target lead to compensate 
for flight time of his bullet. Traveling in excess of 186,000 miles per 
second (speed of light), the MILES laser nullifies the requirement for 
target lead. Again, the sniper may be lulled into a false sense of confidence. 
The trainer should enforce the principles of moving target engagement by 
having the sniper note appropriate target lead for the given situation. 



9-41 



FM 23-10 



APPENDIX A 

PRIMARY SNIPER WEAPONS OF THE 
WORLD 

Several countries have developed sniper weapon systems 
comparable to the United States systems. These weapon systems 
are sold to or copied by countries throughout the worla. Within the 
ever changing world of politics, it is impossible to predict how the 
future enemy may be armed. The designs and capabilities of these 
weapon systems are similar. However, the amount of training and 
experience separates the sniper the marksman. This appendix 
describes the characteristics and capabilities of prevalent sniper 
weapon systems. 

A-l. AUSTRIA 

The Austrian Scharfschutzengewehr 69 (SSG-69) is the current sniper 
weapon of the Austrian Army and several foreign military forces. It is 
available in either 7.62-mm x 51 or the .243 Winchester calibers. 
The SSG-69 is a manually bolt-operated, 5-round rotary or 10-round box, 
magazine-fed, single-shot repeating rifle. Recognizable features are 
synthetic stock hammer-forged, heavy barrel with a taper; two-stage 
trigger, adjustable for length and weight of pull; and a machined, 
longitudinal rib on top of the receiver that accepts all types of mounts. 
The sighting system consists of the Kahles ZF69 6-power telescope iron 
sights are permanently affixed to the rifle for emergency use. The telescope 
comes equipped with an internal bullet-drop compensator graduated to 
800 meters, and a reticle that consists of an inverted V with broken 
cross hairs. The weapon, magazine, and telescope together weigh 
10.14 pounds. This weapon has a barrel length of 25.59 inches and a total 
length of 44.88 inches with a muzzle velocity of 2,819 feet per second. 
It has an accuracy of 15.75 inches at 800 meters using RWS Match rounds. 



A-l 



FM 23-10 



A-2. BELGIUM 

The Model 30-11 sniping FN rifle is the current sniper rifle of the Belgian 
and other armies. This weapon is a 7.62-mm x 51, 5-round internal or 
10-round detachable box, magazine-fed, manually bolt-operated rifle with 
a Mauser-action heavy barrel and, through the use of butt-spacer plates, 
an adjustable stock. Its sighting system is the FN 4-power, 
28-mm telescope and aperture sights with 1/6 MOA adjustment 
capability. The rifle weighs 10.69 pounds and, with its 19.76-inch barrel, 
is a total of 43.97 inches long. The Model 30-11 has a muzzle velocity of 
2,819 fps. Accessories include the biped of the MAG machine gun, 
butt-spacer plates, sling, and carrying case. 

A-3. THE FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

The current sniper weapon system is the VZ54 sniper rifle. It is a 
manually bolt-operated, 10-rouna box, magazine-fed 7.62-mm x 54 rimmed 
weapon and built upon bolt-action with a free-floating barrel. This weapon 
is similar to the M1891/30 sniping rifle (former Russian weapon)-only 
shorter and lighter. The rifle is 45.19 inches long and weighs 9.02 pounds 
with the telescope. It has a muzzle velocity of 2,659 fps with a maximum 
effective range of 1,000 meters. 

A-4. FINLAND 

Finnish weapon technology introduces a 7.62-mm x 51 sniper rifle that 
is equipped with an integral barrel /silencer assembly. It is a bolt-action, 
5-round dox, magazine-fed weapon with a nonreflective plastic stock and 
a standard adjustable biped. Through the use of adaptors, any telescopic 
or electro-optical sight may be mounted. The weapon is not equipped 
with metallic sights. The 7.62-mm Vaime SSR-1 (silenced sniper rifle) 
weighs 9.03 pounds and is 46.45 inches long. 

A-5. FRANCE 

French sniper weapons consist of the FR-F1 and FR-F2. 

a. FR-F1. The FR-F1 sniping rifle, known as the Tireur d'Elite, is a 
manually bolt-operated, 10-round detachable box, magazine-fed, 
7.62-mm x 51 or 7.5-mm x 54 weapon. The length of the stock may be 
adjusted with the butt-spacer plates. This weapon's sighting system 
consists of the Model 53 bis 4-power telescopic sight and integral metallic 
sights with luminous spots for night firing. It weighs 11.9 pounds, has a barrel 
length of 21.7 inches, and a total length of 44.8 inches. This weapon has 
a muzzle velocity of 2,794 fps and a maximum effective range of 800 meters. 



A-2 



FM 23-10 

Standard equipment features a permanently affixed biped whose legs may 
be folded forward into recesses in the fore-end of the weapon. 

b. FR-F2. The FR-F2 sniping rifle is an updated version of the Fl. 
Dimensions and operating characteristics remain unchanged; however, 
functional improvements have been made. A heavy-duty biped has been 
mounted more toward the butt-end of the rifle, adding ease of adjustment 
for the firer. Also, the major change is the addition of a thick, plastic 
thermal sleeve around and along the length of the barrel. This addition 
eliminates or reduces barrel mirage and heat signature. It is also 
chambered for 7.62-mm x 51 NATO ammunition. 

A-6. GERMANY 

The FRG has three weapons designed mainly for sniping the Model 
SP66 Mauser, WA 2000 Walther, and Heckler and Koch PSG-1. 

a. Model SP66 Mauser. The SP66 is not only used by the Germans 
but also by about 12 other countries. This weapon is a heavy-barreled, 
manually bolt-operated weapon built upon a Mauser short-action. 
Its 26.8-inch barrel, completely adjustable thumbhole-type stock, and 
optical telescopic sight provide a good-quality target rifle. The weapon 
has a 3-round internal magazine fitted for 7.62-mm x 51 ammunition and 
a Zeiss-Diavari ZA 1.5-6-variable power x 42-mm zoom telescopic sight. 
The muzzle of the weapon is equipped with a flash suppressor and 
muzzle brake. 

b. WA 2000 Walther. The WA 2000 is built specifically for sniping. 
The entire weapon is built around the 25.6-inch barrel; it is 35.6 inches long. 
This uniquely designed weapon is chambered for .300 Winchester 
Magnum, but it can be equipped to accommodate 7.62-mm x 51 NATO 
or 7.5-mm x 55 Swiss calibers. It is a gas-operated, 6-round box, 
magazine-fed weapon, and it weighs 18.3 pounds. The weapon's trigger 
is a single- or two-staged type, and its optics consist of a 2.5-10-variable 
power x 56-mm telescope. It has range settings of 100 to 600 meters and 
can be dismounted and mounted without loss of zero. 

c. Heckler and Koch PSG-1. The PSG-1 is a gas-operated, 5- or 
20-round, magazine-fed, semiautomatic weapon and is 47.5-inches long 
with a 25.6-inch barrel and has a fully adjustable, pistol-grip-style stock. 
Optics consist of a 6-power x 42-mm telescopic sight with six settings for 
range from 100 to 600 meters. The 7.62-mm x 51 PSG-1 weighs 20.7 pounds 
with tripod and when fully loaded. The muzzle velocity is 2,558 to 
2,624 fps. 

A-3 



FM 23-10 



A-7. ISRAEL 

The Israelis copied the basic operational characteristics and configuration 
of the 7.62-mm Galil assault rifle and developed a weapon to meet the 
demands of sniping. The 7.62-mm x 51 Galil sniping rifle is a semiautomatic, 
gas-operated, 20-round bolt magazine-fed weapon. Like most service 
rifles modified for sniper use, the weapon is equipped with a heavier barrel 
fitted with a flash suppressor it can be equipped with a silencer that fires 
subsonic ammunition. The weapon features a pistol-grip-style stock, a fully 
adjustable cheekpiece, a rubber recoil pad, a two-stage trigger, and an 
adjustable biped mounted to the rear of the fore-end of the rifle. 
Its sighting system consists of a side-mounted 6-power x 40-mm telescope 
and fixed metallic sights. The weapon is 43.89-inches long with a 20-inch 
barrel without a flash suppressor and weighs 17.64 pounds with a biped, 
sling, telescope, and loaded magazine. When firing FN Match ammunition, 
the weapon nas a muzzle velocity of 2,672 fps; when firing M118 special 
ball ammunition, it has a muzzle velocity of 2,557 fps. 

A-8. ITALY 

The Italian sniper rifle is the Berretta rifle. This rifle is a manually 
bolt-operated, 5-round box, magazine-fed weapon, and fires the 
7.62-mm x 51 NATO rounds. Its 45.9-inch length consists of a 23-inch 
heavy, free-floated barrel, a wooden thumbhole-type stock with a rubber 
recoil pad, and an adjustable cheekpiece. Target-quality, metallic sights 
consist of a hooded front sight and a fully adjustable, V-notch rearsight. 
The optical sight consists of a Zeiss-Diavari-Z 1.5-power x 6-mm zoom 
telescope. The weapon weighs 15.8 pounds with biped and 13.75 pounds 
without the biped. The NATO telescope mount allows almost any 
electro-optical or optical sight to be mounted to the weapon. 

A-9. SPAIN 

The 7.62-mm C-75 special forces rifle is the current sniper rifle of Spain. 
This weapon uses a manually operated Mauser bolt-action. It is equipped 
with iron sights and has telescope mounts machined into the receiver to 
allow for the mounting of most electro-optic or optic sights. The weapon 
weighs 8.14 pounds. An experienced firer can deliver effective fire out to 
1,500 meters using Match ammunition. 

A-10. SWITZERLAND 

The Swiss use the 7.62-mm x 51 NATO SG 510-4SIG rifle with telescopic sight. 
The SG 510-4 is a delayed, blow-back-operated, 20-round, magazine-fed, 
semiautomatic or fully automatic weapon. With biped, telescope, and 



A-4 



FM 23-10 



empty 20-round magazine, the weapon weighs 1229 pounds. It is 
39.9 inches long with a 19.8-inch barrel and a muzzle velocity of 2,591 fps. 

A-ll. UNITED KINGDOM 

The United Kingdom has four weapons designed for use by military 
snipers: the L42A1, Models 82 and 85 Parker-Hale, and L96AT. 

a. L42A1. The L42A1 is a 7.62-mm x 51 single-shot, manually 
bolt-operated 10-round box magazine-fed conversion of the Enfield .303, 
Mark i. It is 46.49 inches long with a barrel length of 27.51 inches. It comes 
equipped with metallic sights and 6-power x 42-mm LIA1 telescope, and 
has a muzzle velocity of 2/48 fps. 

b. Model 82. The Model 82 sniper rifle is a 7.62-mm x 51 single-shot, 
manually bolt-operated, 4-round internal magazine-fed rifle built upon a 
Mauser 98-action. It is equipped with metallic target sights or the more 
popular V2S 4-variable power x 10-mm telescope. It can deliver 
precision fire at all ranges out to 400 meters with a 99 percent chance of 

irst-round accuracy. The weapon weighs 10.5 pounds and is 45.7 inches long, 
t is made of select wood stock and has a 25.9-inch, freefloated heavy barrel. 
An optional, adjustable biped is also available. 

c. Model 85. The Model 85 sniper rifle is a 7.62-mm x 51 single-shot, 
manually bolt-operated, 10-round box magazine-fed rifle designed for 
extended use under adverse conditions. Its loaded weight of 30.25 pounds 
consists of an adjustable-for-length walnut stock with a rubber recoil pad 
and cold-forged, free-floatea 27.5-inch heavy barrel. The popular 
telescope is 6-power x 44-mm with a ballistic cam graduated from 200 to 
900 meters. This weapon is guaranteed first-round hit capability on 
targets up to 600 meters. It also provides an 85 percent first-round 
capability at ranges of 600 to 900 meters. Features mclude: 

(1) An adjustable trigger. 

(2) A silent safety catch. 

(3) A threaded muzzle for a flash suppressor. 

(4) A biped with lateral and swivel capabilities. 

(5) An integral dovetail mount that accepts a variety of telescopes 
and electro-optical sights. 

d. The L96A1 sniper rifle is a 7.62-mm x 51 single-shot, manually 
bolt-operated, 10-round box magazine-fed rifle weighing 13.64 pounds. 
It features an aluminum frame with a high-impact plastic, thumbhole-type 
stock, a free-floated barrel; and a lightweight-alloy, fully adjustable biped. 
The rifle is equipped with metallic sights that can deliver accurate fire out 
to 700 meters and can use the LIA1 telescope. The reported accuracy of 



A-5 



FM 23-10 



this weapon is 0.75 MO A at 1,000 meters. One interesting feature of the stock 
design is a spring-loaded monopod concealed in the butt. Fully adjustable 
for elevation, the monopod serves the same purpose as the sand sock that 
the US Army uses. 

A-12. UNITED STATES 

The US Army sniper weapons are the M21 and M24 SWS. As with other 
countries, earlier production sniper rifles are still being used abroad to 
include the Ml, MIA-EZ and the M21. Other sniper weapon systems 
used by US forces are the USMC M40A1 and special application sniper 
rifles such as the RAI Model 500 and the Barrett Model 82. 

a. M40A1. The M40A1 sniping rifle is a manually bolt-operated, 
5-round internal magazine-fed 7.62-mm x 51 NATO weapon. This weapon 
is equipped with a Unertyl lo-power fixed telescope with a roil-dot reticle 
pattern as found in the M24'sM3A telescope. The M40A1 is 43.97 inches 

ong with a 24-inch barrel and weighs 14.45 pounds. It fires Ml 18 special 
3alf ammunition and has a muzzle velocity of 2,547 fps and a maximum 
effective range of 800 meters. 

b. RAI Model 500. The RAI Model 500 long-range rifle is a manually 
bolt-operated, single-shot weapon, and it is chambered for the 
caliber .50 Browning cartridge. Its 33-inch heavy, fluted, free-floating 
barrel, biped, and fully adjustable stock and cheekpiece weigh a total of 
29.92 pounds. The weapon is equipped with a harmonic balancer that 
dampens barrel vibrations, a telescope with a ranging scope base, and a 
muzzle brake with flash suppressor. The USMC and USN use this 
weapon, which has a muzzle velocity of 2,912 fps. 

c. Barrett Model 82. The Barrett Model 82 sniping rifle is a 
recoil-operated, 1 1-round detachable box, magazine-fed, semiautomatic 
weapon chambered for the caliber .50 Browning cartridge. Its 36.9-inch 
fluted barrel is equipped with a six-port muzzle brake that reduces recoil 
by 30 percent. It has an adjustable biped and can also be mounted on the 
M82 tripod or any mounting compatible with the M60 machine gun. 
This weapon has a pistol-grip-style stock, is 65.9 inches long, and weighs 
32.9 pounds. The sighting system consists of a telescope, but no metallic 
sights are provided. The telescope mount may accommodate any telescope 
with 1-inch rings. Muzzle velocity of the Model 82 is 2,849 fps. 

A43. THE FORMER RUSSIA 

The Russians have a well-designed sniper weapon called the 7.62-mm 
Dragunov sniper rifle (SVD). The SVD is a semiautomatic, gas-operated, 
10-round box, magazine-fed, 7.62-mm x 54 (rimmed) weapon. It is equipped 



A-6 



FM 23-10 



with metallic sights and the PSO-1 4-power telescopic sight with a 
battery-powered, illuminated reticle. The PSO-1 also incorporates a 
metascope that can detect an infrared source. Used by the former Warsaw 
Pact armies, this thumbhole/pistol-grip-style stocked weapon weighs 
9.64 pounds with telescope and lo-round magazine. This weapon is 
48.2 inches long with a 21.5-inch barrel, a muzzle velocity of 2,722 fps, and 
a maximum effective range of 600 to 800 meters. 

A-14. THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA 

The former Yugoslav armed forces use the M76 semiautomatic sniping rifle. 
The M76 is a gas-operated, 10-round detachable box, magazine-fed, 
optically equipped 7.92-mm weapon. Variations of the weapon may be 
found in calibers 7.62-mm x 54 and 7.62-mm x 51 NATO. Believed to 
be based upon the FAZ family of automatic weapons, it features 
permanently affixed metallic sights, a pistol-grip-style wood stock, and a 
4-power telescopic sight much the same as the Soviet PSO-1. It is 
graduated in NM-meter increments from 100 to 1,000 meters and has an 
optical sight mount that allows the mounting of passive nightsights. 
The M76 is 44.7 inches long with a 21.6-inch-long barrel. It weighs 
11.2 pounds with the magazine and telescope, and it has a muzzle velocity 
of 2261 fps. A maximum effective range for the M76 is given as 800 meters 
with a maximum range of 1,000 meters. 



A-7 



FM 23-10 



APPENDIX B 
M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM 

The National Match M14 rifle (Figure B-l) and its scope makeup 
the Mil sniper weapon system. The Mil is accurized IAW United 
States Army Marksmanship Training Unit specifications and has 
the same basic design ana operation as the standard M14 rifle 
(FM 23-8), except flor specially selected and hand-fitted parts. 

Section I 
M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM 

This section describes the general characteristics of the M21 SWS. The M21 
has been replaced by the M24 (Chapter 2); however, the M21 is still in use 
throughout the US Army. 

B-l. M21 DIFFERENCES 

Significant differences exist between the M21 SWS and M24 SWS. 
These differences are as follows: 

a. The barrel is gauged and selected to ensure correct specification 
tolerances. The bore is not chromium plated. 

b. The stock is walnut and impregnated with an epoxy. 

c. The receiver is individually custom fitted to the stock with a 
fiberglass compound. 

d. The firing mechanism is reworked and polished to provide for a 
crisp hammer release. Trigger weight is between 4.5 to 4.75 pounds. 

e. The suppressor is fitted and reamed to improve accuracy and 
eliminate any misalignment. 

f . The gas cylinder and piston are reworked and polished to improve 
operation and to reduce carbon buildup. 

g. The gas cylinder and lower band are permanently attached to each other, 
n. Other parts are carefully selected, fitted, and assembled. 



B-l 



FM 23-10 




Figure B-1. National Match M14 rifle. 

B-2. INSPECTION 

If the sniper discovers a deficiency while inspecting the rifle, he reports it 
to the unit armorer. The following areas should be inspected: 

a. Check the appearance and completeness of all parts. Shiny surfaces 
should be treated. 

b. Check the flash suppressor for misalignment, burrs, or evidence 
of bullet tipping. The suppressor should be tight on the barrel. 

c. Check the front sight to ensure that it is tight, that the blade is 
square, and that all edges and comers are sharp. 

d. Check the gas cylinder to ensure it fits tightly on the barrel. The gas 
plug should be firmly tightened. 

e. Check the forward band on the stock to ensure it does not bind 
against the gas cylinder front band. 

f. Check the handguard. It should not bind against the receiver, the 
top of the stock, or the operating rod. 

g. Check the firing mechanism to ensure the weapon does not fire 
with the safety "on," and that it has a smooth, crisp trigger pull when the 
safety is "off. ;/ 

h. Check the rear sight tension by turning the aperture up to the 
"10" position. Then press down on top of the aperture with a thumb. 
If the aperture can be pushed down, the tension must be readjusted. 

i. Check the stock for splits or cracks. 



B-2 



FM 23-10 



B-3. CARE AND MAINTANCE 

Extreme care has been used in building the sniper rifle. A similar degree 
of attention must be devoted to its daily care and maintenance. 

a. The rifle should not be disassembled by the sniper for normal 
cleaning and lubrication. Disassembly is performed only by the armorer 
during the scheduled inspections or repair. The armorer thoroughly 
cleans and lubricates the rifle at that time. 

b. The following materials are required for cleaning the rifle 

(1) Lubricating oil, general purpose (PL special). 

(2) Lubricating oil, weapons (for below zero operation). 

(3) Rifle bore cleaner. 

(4) Rifle grease. 

(5) Patches. 

(6) Bore brush. 

(7) Shaving brush. 

(8) Toothbrush. 

(9) Cleaning rags. 

c. The recommended procedures for cleaning and lubricating the 
rifle are as follows: 

(1) Wipe old oil, grease, and external dirt from the weapon. 

(2) Clean the bore by placing the weapon upside down on a table or 
in a weapon cradle, hen, push a bore brush dipped in bore cleaner 
completely through the bore. Remove the bore brush and pull the rod out. 
Repeat this process four or five times. 

(3) Clean the chamber (Figure B-2) and bolt face with bore cleaner 
and a chamber brush or toothbrush. 




Figure B-2. M21 chamber. 



B-3 



FM 23-10 

(4) Clean the chamber, receiver, and other interior areas with 
patches dipped in RBC. 

(5) Clean the bore by pulling clean patches through the bore until 
they come out of the bore clean. 

(6) Wipe the chamber and interior surfaces with patches until clean. 

(7) With the bolt and gas piston to the rear, place one drop of bore 
cleaner in between the rear band of the gas system and the lower side of 
the barrel. DO NOT PUT BORE CLEANER in the gas port. It will 
increase carbon buildup and restrict free movement of the gas piston. 

(8) Lubricate the rifle by placing a light coat of grease on the 
operating rod handle track, caroming surfaces in the hump of the 
operating rod, the bolt's locking lug track, and in between the front 
band lip of the gas system and the metal band on the lower front of 
the stock. 

(9) Place a light coat of PL special on all exterior metal parts. 

B-4. LOADING AND UNLOADING 

To load the M21, the sniper locks the bolt to the rear and places the 
weapon in the SAFE position. He inserts the magazine into the 
magazine well by pushing up, then pulling the bottom of the magazine 
to the rear until the magazine catch gives an audible click. To chamber 
a round, the sniper pulls the bolt slightly to the rear to release the bolt 
catch, then releases the bolt. To unload the M21, he locks the bolt to 
the rear and places the weapon in the SAFE position. Then he 
depresses the magazine release latch, and moves the magazine in a 
forward and downward motion at the same time. 

B-5. REAR SIGHTS 

The M21 sniper weapon system is equipped with National Match rear 
sights (Figure B-3). The pinion assembly adjusts the elevation of the 
aperture, oy turning it clockwise, it raises the point of impact. By 
turning it counterclockwise, it lowers the point of impact. Each click 
of the pinion is 1 MO A (minute of angle). The hooded aperture is also 
adjustable and provides .5 MOA changes in elevation. Rotating the 
aperture so that the indication notch is at the top raises the point of 
impact .5 MOA. Rotating the indication notch to the bottom lowers 
the strike of the round. The windage dial adjusts the lateral movement 
of the rear sight. Turning the dial clockwise moves the point of impact 
to the right and turning it counterclockwise moves the point of impact 
to the left. Each click of windage is .5 MOA. 



B-4 



FM 23-10 



ROTATING THE EYEPIECE 180° 
PRODUCES 1/2 MINUTE CHANGE 
IN ELEVATION. 


IN. 


PEEP-HOLE SIZE 
IDENTIFICATION MARKING 


NATIONAL MATCH 
IDENTIFICATION MARKING. 





Figure B-3. National Match rear sight. 

B-6. MALFUNCTIONS AND CORRECTIONS 

Table B-l contains pertinent information for the operator and serves as 
an aid to personnel who are responsible for restoring worn, damaged, or 
inoperative materiel to a satisfactory condition. If the weapon becomes 
unserviceable, it must be turned in for service by a school-trained National 
Match armorer. 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


FAILURE TO LOAD 


DIRTY OR DEFORMED 
MAGAZINE 


1. 


CLEAN OR REPLACE 




DAMAGED MAGAZINE 


2. 


REPLACE MAGAZINE 




TUBE 








DIRTY MAGAZINE 


3. 


CLEAN 




DAMAGED OR BROKEN 


4. 


REPLACE MAGAZINE 




MAGAZINE SPRING 








DAMAGED OR BROKEN 


5. 


REPLACE MAGAZINE 




FOLLOWER 








LOOSE OR DAMAGED 


6. 


REPLACE MAGAZINE 




FLOOR PLATE 







Table B-1 . M21 malfunctions and corrections. 



B-5 



FM 23-10 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


MAGAZINE 


BENT OR DAMAGED 


7. REPLACE MAGAZINE 


INSERTS WITH 


MAGAZINE 




DIFFICULTY 








EXCESSIVE DIRT IN 


8. CLEAN 




RECEIVER 






ROUND NOT 


9. REMOVE ROUND; 




COMPLETELY SEATED 


INSERT PROPERLY 




IN MAGAZINE 






DEFORMED OR 


10. EVACUATE TO 




OPERATING ROD 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




SPRING GUIDE 






DAMAGED MAGAZINE 


11. EVACUATE TO 




LATCH 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




MAGAZINE LATCH 


12. CHECK MOVEMENT; 




MOVEMENT 


CLEAN IF NECESSARY; IF 




RESTRICTED 


BENT OR DISTORTED, 
EVACUATE TO AUTHORIZED 
ARMORER 


MAGAZINE CANNOT 


MAGAZINE LATCH 


13. EVACUATE TO 


BE RETAINED IN 


DAMAGED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER. 


WEAPON 








MAGAZINE LATCH 


14. EVACUATE TO 




SPRING DAMAGED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




MAGAZINE LATCH 


15. REPLACE MAGAZINE 




PLATE DAMAGED OR 






MISSING 






DEFORMED OR 


16. EVACUATE TO 




DAMAGED OPERATING 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




ROD SPRING GUIDE 






LOCKING RECESS AT 


17. REPLACE MAGAZINE 




TOP FRONT OF 






MAGAZINE NOT FULLY 


18. REMOVE; INSTALL 




INSTALLED 


CORRECTLY (MAKE SURE 
LATCH CLICKS) 


FAILURE TO FEED 


WEAK OR BROKEN 
SPRING 


19. REPLACE MAGAZINE 




DAMAGED MAGAZINE 


20. REPLACE MAGAZINE 



Table B-1. M21 malfunctions and corrections (continued). 



B-6 



FM 23-10 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


FAILURE TO FEED 


DAMAGED OR 


21. EVACUATE TO 


(CONTINUED) 


DEFORMED STRIPPING 
LUG ON BOLT 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




SHORT RECOIL 


22. (SEE SHORT RECOIL) 




DIRTY AMMUNITION 


23. CLEAN AMMUNITION 




AND/OR MAGAZINE 


AND/OR MAGAZINE 




WEAK OR BROKEN 


24. EVACUATE TO 




OPERATING ROD SPRING 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




RESTRICTED MOVEMENT 


25. EVACUATE TO 




OF, OR DAMAGED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




OPERATING ROD25. 




BOLT FAILS TO LOCK 


CARTRIDGE CASE 


26. PULL BOLT CLOSE 




HOLDING BOLT OUT OF 


ASSEMBLY TO REAR 




BATTERY 


AND REMOVE 
DEFORMED CARTRIDGE; 
CLEAN AMMUNITION 
AND/OR BARREL AND 
CHAMBER 




DIRTY CHAMBER 


27. CLEAN CHAMBER 




EXTRACTOR DOES NOT 


28. EVACUATE TO 




SNAP OVER RIM OF 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




CARTRIDGE CASE 






FROZEN OR BLOCKED 


29. EVACUATE TO 




EJECTOR SPRING AND 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




PLUNGER 






RESTRICTED 


30. EVACUATE TO 




MOVEMENT OF, OR 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




DAMAGED OPERATING 






ROD SPRING 






BOLT NOT FULLY 


31. EVACUATE TO 




ROTATED AND LOCKED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




IN RECEIVER 






WEAK OR BROKEN 


32. EVACUATE TO 




OPERATING ROD SPRING 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




DAMAGED RECEIVER 


33. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMOR 


FAILURE TO FIRE 


BOLT NOT FULLY 


34. (SEE BOLT FAILS TO 




FORWARD AND LOCKED 


LOCK) 



Table B-1. M21 malfunctions and corrections (continued). 



B-7 



FM 23-10 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


FAILURE TO FIRE 


DEFECTIVE 


35. REMOVE AMMUNITION 


(CONTINUED) 


AMMUNITION 






FIRING PIN WORN, 


36. EVACUATE TO 




DAMAGED, OR 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




MOVEMENT RESTRICTED 






BROKEN HAMMER 


37. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




WEAK OR BROKEN 


38. EVACUATE TO 




HAMMER SPRING 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




HAMMER AND 


39. EVACUATE TO 




TRIGGER LUGS OR 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




SEAR WORN OR 






BROKEN, CAUSING 






HAMMER TO RIDE THE 






BOLT ASSEMBLY 






FORWARD 




SHORT RECOIL 


GAS PLUG LOOSE OR 


40. TIGHTEN PLUG IF LOOSE; 




MISSING 


EVACUATE TO AUTHORIZED 
ARMORER IF MISSING 




RESTRICTED 


41. EVACUATE TO 




MOVEMENT OF 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




OPERATING ROD 






ASSEMBLY 






BOLT BINDING 


42. CLEAN 




GAS CYLINDER LOCK 


43. EVACUATE TO 




NOT FULLY INSTALLED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




GAS PISTON 


44. EVACUATE TO 




RESTRICTED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




DAMAGED CONNECTOR 


45. EVACUATE TO 




ASSEMBLY 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




PARTIALLY CLOSED 


46. EVACUATE TO 




SPINDLE VALVE 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




DEFECTIVE AMMUNITION 


47. REPLACE AMMUNITION 


FAILURE TO 


SPINDLE VALVE 


48. EVACUATE TO 


EXTRACT 


CLOSED 


AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




CARTRIDGE SEIZED IN 


49. REMOVE 




CHAMBER 





Table B-1. M21 malfunctions and corrections (continued). 



B-8 



FM 23-10 



MALFUNCTION 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


FAILURE TO 

EXTRACT 

(CONTINUED) 


SHORT RECOIL 


50. (SEE SHORT RECOIL) 




DAMAGED OR 
DEFORMED EXTRACTOR 


51. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




WEAK, DEFORMED, OR 
FROZEN EXTRACTOR 
PLUNGER ASSEMBLY 


52. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




RUPTURED OR 
SEPARATED CARTRIDGE 


53. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 


FAILURE TO EJECT 


SHORT RECOIL 


54. (SEE SHORT RECOIL) 




WEAK, DEFORMED OR 
FROZEN EXTRACTOR 
PLUNGER ASSEMBLY 


55. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 


FAIL TO HOLD 
BOLT REARWARD 


DAMAGED OR 
DEFORMED MAGAZINE 
FOLLOWER 


56. REPLACE MAGAZINE 




DAMAGED BOLT LOCK 


57. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




BOLT LOCK MOVEMENT 
RESTICTED 


58. EVACUATE TO 
AUTHORIZED ARMORER 




WEAK OR BROKEN 
MAGAZINE SPRING 


59. REPLACE MAGAZINE 



Table B-1. M21 malfunctions and corrections (continued). 



Section II 
M21 SIGHTING DEVICES 

A scope mounted on the rifle allows the sniper to detect and engage 
targets more effectively. The target's image in the scope is in focus with 
the aiming point (reticle). This allows for a more focused picture of the 
target and aiming point at the same time. Another advantage of the scope 
is its ability to magnify the target. This increases the resolution of the 
target's image, making it clearer and more defined. Keep in mind, a scope 
does not make a soldier a better sniper, it only helps him to see better. 



B-9 



FM 23-10 



B-7. AUTO-RANGING TELESCOPE 

Auto-ranging telescopes are part of the M21 system. The two types of 
ARTs on the M21 system are the ART I and ART II. The basic design and 
operating principle of both scopes are the same. Therefore, they will be 
described together, but their differences will be pointed out. 

B-8. ART I AND ART II SCOPES 

The ART has a commercially procured 3- to 9-variable-power telescopic 
scopesight, modified for use with the sniper rifle. This scope has a 
modified reticle with a ballistic earn mounted to the power adjustment 
ring on the ART I (Figure B-4). The ART II (Figure B-5) has a separate 
ballistic cam and power ring. The ART is mounted on a spring-loaded 
base mount that is adapted to fit the M14. It is transported in a hard 
carrying case when not mounted to the rifle. The scopes on the M21 sniper 
weapon system can also be used for rough range estimation. Once the 
sniper team is familiar with the M21 and is accustomed to ranging out on 
targets, it makes a mental note of where the power adjust ring is set at 
various distances. 



POWER 
POWER RING 

RING LOCK 



ELEVATION 
TURRET 



OBJECTIVE 
LENS 



EYEPIECE 




BALLISTIC 
CAM 



MOUNTING 
RINGS 



Figure B-4. ART I scope. 



B-10 



FM 23-10 



POWER 

LOCKING P ^! R LOCK 
RING 



RING 



ELEVATION 
TURRET 



EYEPIECE 



RANGE OR 

POWER 
INDICATOR 



WINDAGE 



OBJECTIVE 
LENS 




BALLISTIC 
CAM 



MOUNTING 
RINGS 



Figure B-5. ART II scope. 

a. Magnification. The ART's increased magnification allows the 
sniper to seethe target clearly. 

(1) The average, unaided human eye can distinguish detail of about 
1 inch at 100 meters (1 MOA). Magnification, combined with 
well-designed optics, permit resolution of this 1 inch divided by the 
magnification. Thus, a 1/4 MOA of detail can be seen with a 4-power 
scope at 100 meters, or 1 inch of detail can be seen at 600 meters with a 
6-power scope. 

(2) The lens surfaces are coated with a hard film of magnesium 
fluoride for maximum light transmission. 

(3) The elevation and windage turrets have dials on them that are 
located midway on the scope barrel and are used for zeroing adjustments. 
These dials are graduated m .5 MOA increments. 

(4) These telescopes also have modified retitles The ART I scope 
has a basic cross hair design with two horizontal stadia lines that appear 
at target distances, 15 inches above and 15 inches below the horizontal 



B-ll 



FM 23-10 



line of the reticle (Figure B-6). It also has two vertical stadia lines that 
appear at target distance, 30 inches to the left and 30 inches to the right 
of the vertical line of the reticle. The ART II scope reticle (Figure B-7) 
consists of three posts: two horizontal and one Dottom vertical post. 
These posts represent 1 meter at the target's distance. The reticle has a 
basic cross hair with two dots on the horizontal line that appear at target 
distance, 30 inches to the left and 30 inches to the right of the vertical line. 




© 



Figure B-6. ART I reticle. 



Figure B-7. ART II reticle. 



(5) A ballistic cam is attached to the power adjustment ring on the 
ART I scope. The ART II scope has a separate power ring and ballistic cam. 

(6) The power ring on both scopes increases and decreases the 
magnification of the scope, while the ballistic cam raises and lowers the 
scope to compensate for elevation. 

(7) Focus adjustments are made by screwing the eyepiece into or 
away from the scope barrel until the reticle is clear. 

b. Scope Mounts. The ART mounts are made of lightweight 
aluminum consisting of a side-mounting plate and a spring-loaded base 
with scope mounting rings. The scope mount is designed for low-profile 
mounting of the scope to the rifle, using the mounting guide grooves and 
threaded hole(s) on the left side of the receiver. The ART I has one 
thumbscrew that screws into the left side of the receiver (Figure B-8). 
The ART II mount has two thumbscrews; one is screwed into the left side 
of the receiver, and the other is screwed into the cartridge clip guide in 
front of the rear sight (Figure B-9). 



B-12 



FM 23-10 



n n 








^^ BnD *" ' "■- ~ — ■ 


o 






T 


Q j 






THUMB SCREW 




THUMB SCREWS 



Figure B-8. ART I mount. 



Figure B-9. ART II mount. 



c. Design and Operation. The ART scopes are designed to 
automatically adjust tor the needed elevation at ranges or 300 to 
900 meters. This is done by increasing or decreasing the magnification of 
the scope until a portion of the target's image matches the represented 
measurement of the scope's reticle. 

(1) For example, the power ring on the ART I scope can be adjusted 
until 30 inches of an object or a person's image (beltline to top of head) 
fits exactly in between the horizontal stadia lines (top stadia line touching 
top of the head and bottom stadia line on the beltline). 

(2) Another example is to adjust the power ring on the ART II scope 
until 1 meter (about 40 inches) or a person's or an object's image appears 
equal to one of the posts in the reticle. 

(3) When turning the power ring to adjust the target's image to the 
reticle, the sniper is also turning the ballistic cam. This raises or lowers 
the scope itself to compensate for elevation. Therefore, once the scope's 
magnification is properly adjusted in proportion to the target's image, the 
ballistic cam has at the same time adjusted the scope for the proper 
elevation needed to engage the target at that range. 

(4) The ART II scope has a locking thumbscrew located on the power 
ring used for connecting and disconnecting the power ring from the 
ballistic cam. This allows the sniper to adjust the scope on target 
(auto-ranging mode), and then disengage the locking thumbscrew to increase 
magnification (manual mode) without affecting the elevation adjustment. 



B-13 



FM 23-10 



d. Zeroing. The ART scope should be zeroed at 300 meters. 

Ideally, this should be done on a known-distance range with bull's-eye-type 
targets. When zeroing the ART scope (Figure B-10), the sniper— 

(1) Removes the elevation and windage caps from the scope. 

(2) Turns the power adjustment ring to the lowest position. On the 
ART II scope, ensures that the locking thumbscrew is engaged and that 
the ballistic cam moves when the power ring is turned. 

(3) Assumes a good prone-supported position that allows the 
natural point of aim to be centered on the target. 

(4) Fires three rounds, using good marksmanship fundamentals with 
each shot. 

(5) Makes the needed adjustments to the scope after placement of 
the rounds has been noted. lie is sure to remember— 

(a) That each mark on the elevation and windage dials equals .5 MOA 
(.5 MOA at 300 meters equals 1.5 inches.) 

(b) That turning the elevation dial in the direction of the UP arrow 
will raise the point of impact; turning it the other direction will lower it. 

(c) That turning the windage dial in the direction of the R arrow will 
move the point of impact to the right; turning it the other direction will 
move it to-the left. 




WINDAGE SCALE - INTERNAL ADJUSTMENT 
RIGHT SIDE 




ELEVATION SCALE - INTERNAL ADJUSTMENT 
TOP 



Figure B-10. Elevation and windage scales. 



B-14 



FM 23-10 



(6) Repeats the steps in paragraphs (4) and (5) above until two 
3-round shot groups are centered on the target. 

After the scope is properly zeroed, it will effectively range on targets out 
to 900 meters in the auto-ranging mode. 

e. Zeroing and Calibrating of the M21 Iron Sights.If the telescope 
is damaged, the sniper must use his backup sighting system-iron sights. 
Due to time constraints, it may be impossible or impractical to search 
through the data book to determine the needed elevation setting to 
engage a target at a specific range. Once the elevation dial has been 
calibrated to the sniper's individual zero for that particular rifle, targets 
can be engaged anywhere between and 1,080 meters by using index lines. 

(1) The index lines on the elevation dial designate hundreds of yards 
to the target. Every other line is numbered with an even number, lines in 
between are the odd hundreds of yards-that is, the line marked with a 
number "2" is the 200-yard index line. The index line between the 
numbers 2 and 4 is the 300-yard index line. If the distance to the target is 
not in exact hundreds of yards, the elevation dial should be clicked 
between index lines to approximate the distance. If the target distance is 
less than 100 yards, the 100-yard setting should be used-the difference 
in impact is minimal. 

(2) To calibrate the elevation dial, the sniper must first zero the rifle 
at a known distance that correlates to one of the index lines on the 
elevation dial. (The recommended distance is 300 yards.) Once zeroing 
is completed, calibration involves the following steps: 

STEP 1: Turn the elevation dial forward (down, away from the sniper), 
and move the rear sight aperture assembly to its lowest setting 
(mechanical zero), counting the number of clicks. This number of 
clicks is elevation zero and must be remembered for use in the 
calibration process— for example, the number will be 10 clicks. 

STEP 2: Loosen the screw in the center of the elevation dial using a 
dime or screwdriver (about one turn) until the dial can be rotated forward 
Be careful not to loosen the screw too much or it may fall and become lost. 
It is critical that once the screw is loosened to never rotate the elevation 
dial clockwise (up or toward the sniper) during calibration. This could 
result in improper calibration. 

STEP 3: Turn the elevation dial forward (down, away from the 
sniper) until the index line on the receiver lines up with the index line 
on the dial that correlates to the distance at which the rifle was 
zeroed-for example, 300 yards. This is the index line between 2 and 4. 



B-15 



FM 23-10 

If the setting is passed (even by one click), rotate the elevation dial 
counterclockwise (down, away from the sniper) until the index lines 
match up. Never rotate the dial in the UP direction (clockwise, 
toward the sniper) with the screw in the elevation dial loose. 

STEP 4: Remember the number of clicks (for example, 10) when 
zeroing the rifle and begin rotating the elevation dial 

counterclockwise (down, away from sniper). Count the clicks until 
the elevation dial has been rotated the same number of clicks that 
were on the rifle when zeroed. If too many clicks are used, start over 
at Step 3. 

STEP 5: Now, hold the elevation dial, being careful not to allow it to 
rotate, then tighten the screw in the center of the elevation dial as 
tight as possible. Hold the elevation dial carefully with a pair of pliers 
to ensure the screw is tight. 

STEP 6: To check the calibration, rotate the elevation dial to 
mechanical zero (all the way down), then count the number of clicks 
to zero. This should result in the index line on the receiver being lined 
up with the correct index line on the elevation dial (between 2 and 4). 
If this happens, the rear sight is now calibrated for elevation. If not, 
repeat Steps 1 through 5. 



B-16 



FM 23-10 



GLOSSARY 



AARTY Army artillery 

ADAM artillery delivered antipersonnel mine 

aiming a marksmanship fundamental; refers to the precise 

alignment of the rifle sights with the target 

ALICE all-purpose lightweight individual carrying equipment 

AM amplitude modulation 

antenna .... a device used to radiate or receive electromagnetic 
energy (usually RF) 

antijamming . . a device, method, or system used to reduce or eliminate 
the effects of jamming 

AP antipersonnel 

APFT Army Physical Fitness Test 

APICM .... antipersonnel improved conventional munition 

armorer .... one who services and makes repairs on small arms 
and performs similar duties to keep small arms 
ready for use 

ARNG Army National Guard 

ART auto-ranging telescope 

ARTEP Army Training and Evaluation Program 

AVLB armored vehicle launched bridge 

AWADS .... adverse weather aerial delivery system 

ball the projectile the bullet 

ballistics .... a science that deals with the motion and flight 
characteristics of projectiles 

BDU battle dress uniform 

BMNT beginning morning nautical twilight 

breath control a marksmanship fundamental refers to the control of 
breathing to help keep the rifle steady during firing 

bullet drop . . how far the bullet drops from the line of departure to 
the point of impact 

Glossary-1 



FM 23-10 

bull's-eye target . any target with a round black circle and scoring rings 
Normally used in competitive marksmanship training 

butt plate metal or rubber covering of the end of the stock on 

the rifle 

CALFEX combined arms live-fire exercise 

cartridge a complete round of ammunition 

CAB close air support 

CLGP cannon-launched guided projectile 

CAP cleaner, lubricant, preservative 

cm centimeter 

CMF career management field 

counterpoise ... a conductor or system of conductors used as a 
substitute for a ground in an antenna system 

CP concrete-piercing 

CQ charge of quarters 

crack and thump . a method to determine the general direction and 
distance to an enemy firer who is shooting at you 

cradle a vise-like mechanism that holds a weapon in a 

secured position during test firing 

CS a chemical agent (tear gas) 

CW continuous wave 

dia diameter 

dipole a radio antenna consisting of two horizontal rods in 

line with each other with their ends slightly separated 

DPICM dual-purpose improved conventional munition 

DIG date-time group 

DZ drop zone 

E&E evasion and escape 

ECM electronic countermeasures 

EDGE emergency deployment readiness exercise 

EEL essential elements of information 

EVENT end of evening nautical twilight 

effective wind . . the average of all the varying winds encountered 



Glossary-2 



FM 23-10 

electromagnetic wave . . .a wave propagating as a periodic disturbance 
of the electromagnetic field and having a frequency in 
the electromagnetic spectrum 

elevation adjustment . . . rotating the front sight post to cause the 
bullet to strike the higher or lower on the target 

EMP electromagnetic pulse 

EPW enemy prisoner of war 

ERP end-route rally point 

eye relief the distance from the firing eye to the rear sight; 

eye relief is a function of stock weld 

F Fahrenheit 

FDC fire direction center 

FFL final firing line 

FFP final firing position 

FLOT forward line of own troops 

FM frequency modulated 

FO forward observer 

fps feet per second 

FRAGO .... fragmentary order 

freq frequency 

FSK frequency-shift keying 

ft feet 

FTX field training exercise 

ground a metallic connection with the earth to establish 

ground (or earth) potential 

HAHO high altitude, high opening 

half-wave antenna an antenna whose electrical length is half 

the wavelength of the transmitted or received 
frequency 

HALO high altitude, low opening 

HC hydrogen chloride 

HE high explosive 

HF high frequency 



Glossary-3 



FM 23-10 

hrs hours 

Hz hertz 

IAW in accordance with 

ID identification 

ilium illumination 

in inches 

insulator a device or material that has a high electrical resistance 

interference ... any undesired signal that tends to interfere with the 
desired signal 

IRP initial rally point 

jamming .... deliberate interference intended to prevent reception 
of signals in a specific frequency band 

KIM keep-in-memory (exercise game) 

laser light amplification by simulated emission of radiation 

LBE loading-bearing equipment 

LAX live-fire exercise 

line of departure . the line defined by the bore of the rifle or the path the 
bullet would take without gravity 

line of sight .... a straight line from the eye through the aiming device 
to the point of aim 

L/R left/right 

LR laser range finder 

LSA lubricating oil, weapons, semifluid 

LZ landing zone 

m meters 

MEDEVAC .... medical evacuation 

METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops and time available 

MHz megahertz 



Glossary-4 



FM 23-10 

midrange trajectory/maximum ordinate. . the highest point the bullet 
reaches on its way to the target this point must 
be known to engage a targefthat requires firing 
underneath an overhead obstacle, such as a bridge or 
a tree; inattention to midrange trajectory may cause 
the sniper to hit the obstacle instead of the target 

MIJI meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference 

MILES multiple-integrated laser engagement system 

min minute(s) 

mm millimeter 

MO A an angle that would cover 1 inch at a distance of 

100 yards, 2 inches at 200 yards, and so on; each click 
of sight adjustment is equal to one minute of angle 

MOPP mission-oriented protection posture 

MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain 

mph miles per hour 

MRE meal, ready-to-eat 

MTP mission training plan 

muzzle velocity . the speed of the bullet as it leaves the rifle barrel, 
measured in feet per second; it varies according to 
various factors, such as ammunition type and lot 
number, temperature, and humidity 

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

NBC nuclear, biological, chemical 

NCO noncommissiotted officer 

NGF naval gunfire 

NOD night observation device 

NSN national stock number 

OIR other intelligence requirements 

OP observation post 

OPORD operation order 

OPSEC operations security 

optical sight . . sight with lenses, prisms, or mirrors used in lieu of 
iron sights 

ORP objective rally point 

O-T observer-target 



Glossary-5 



FM 23-10 

PD point-detonating 

PFC private first class 

P I R priority intelligence requirements 

POC point of contact 

point of aim ... the exact spot on a target the rifle sights are 
aligned with 

point of impact . . the point that a bullet strikes; usually considered in 
relation to point of aim 

PSG platoon sergeant 

PT physical training 

PW prisoner of war 

PZ pickup zone 

QRF quick-reaction force 

quarter-wave antenna . . an antenna with an electrical length that is 
equal to one-quarter wavelength of the signal being 
transmitted or received 



RMMS remote antiarmor mine system 

range card .... small chart on which ranges and directions to various 
targets and other important points in the area under 
fire are recorded 

RAP rocket-assisted projectile 

RBC rifle bore cleaner 

recoil the rearward motion or kick of a gun upon firing 

RECONREP . . . reconnaissance report 

retained velocity . the speed of the bullet when it reaches the target 
due to drag, the velocity will be reduced 

RF radio frequency 

RFA restrictive fire area 

RFL restrictive fire line 

round may refer to a complete cartridge or to the bullet 

RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition 

SI adjutant 

S2 intelligence officer 

S3 operations and training officer 

Glossary-6 



FM 23-10 

S4 supply officer 

SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment 

SAW squad automatic weapon 

SEO sniper employment officer 

servomechanism an automatic device for controlling large 

amounts of power by using small amounts of power 

SFC sergeant first class 

SGT sergeant 

SHELREP shelling report 

shot group .... a number of shots fired using the same aiming point 
which accounts for rifle, ammunition, and firer 
varibility three shots are enough, but any number of 
rounds may be fired in a group 

sight alignment . placing the center tip of the front sight post in the 
exact center of the rear aperature 

silhouette target . a target that represents the outline of a man 

single sideband . a system of radio communications in which the carrier 
and either the upper or lower sideband is removed from 
AM transmission to reduce the channel width and 
improve the signal-to-noise ratio 

SIR specific information requirements 

SITREP situation report 

SM smoke munitions 

SOI signal operation instructions 

SOP standing operating procedure 

SP self-propelled 

SPC specialist 

SPIES special patrol insertion /extraction system 

SPOTREP spot report 

SSB single sideband 

STAB a system for extracting personnel by helicopter 

STANAG Standardization Agreement 

static sharp, short bursts of noise on a radio receiver caused 

by electrical disturbances in the atmosphere or by 
electrical machinery 



Glossary-7 



FM 23-10 
steady position 

stock weld . . . 

STRAC 

STX 



the first marksmanship fundamental, which refers to 
the establishment of a position that allows the weapon 
to be held still while if is being fire 

the contact of the cheek with the stock of the weapon 

standards in training commission 

situational training exercise 

supported 

position any position that uses something other than the body 

to steady the weapon (artificial support) 

S W S sniper weapon system 

TAB tactical air command 

TFFP tentative final firing position 

time of flight ... the amount of time it takes for the bullet to reach the 
target from the time the round exits the rifle 

TOC tactical operations center 

TOW tube-launched, optically tracked wire-guided (missile) 

trajectory the path of the bullet as it travels to the target 

TRC training readiness condition 

TAP target reference point 

unidirectional . . in one direction only 

unsupported position ... any position that requires the firer to hold the 
weapon steady using only his body (bone support) 

USAF United States Air Force 

US AR United States Army Reserve 

USC .... United States Code 

USMC United States Marine Corp 

USN United States Navy 

VHF very high frequency 

VT variable time 

wavelength .... the distance a wave travels during one complete cycle; 
it is equal to the velocity divided by the frequency 



Glossary-8 



FM 23-10 

windage adjustment . . . moving the rear sight aperture to cause the 
bullet to strike left or right on the target 

WP white phosphorus 

zeroing adjusting the rifle sights so bullets hit the aiming 

point at a given range 



Glossary-9 



FM 23-10 



*i 



REFERENCES 

SOURCES USED 

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. 

STANAG 2020. Operational Situation Reports. 13 February 1986 

*STANAG 2022. Intelligence Reports. 29 September 1988. 

*STANAG 2084. Handling and Reporting of Captured Enemy 
Equipment and Documents. 26 June 1986. 

*STANAG 2096. Reporting Engineer Information in the Field. 
13 Jul 1988. 

*STANAG 2103. Reporting Nuclear Detonations, Radioactive Fallout, 
and Biological and Chemical Attacks, and Predicting Associated 
Hazards. 12 July 1988. 

*STANAG 2934. Artillery Procedures-AARTY-1. 26 November 1990. 

*STANAG 3204. Aeromedical Evacuation. 

STANAG 6004. Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference 
Report. 20 March 1984. 

DOCUMENTS NEEDED 

These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication. 

ARTEP 7-92-MTP. Infantry Scout Platoon/Squad and Sniper Team. 
16 March 1989. 

DA Form 5785-R. Sniper's Data Card. June 1989. 

DA Form 5786-R. Sniper's Observation Log. June 1989. 

DA Form 5787-R. Sniper's Range Card. June 1989. 

DA Form 5788-R. Military Sketch. June 1989. 

DA Form 7325-R. Concealment Exercise, July 1994. 

DA Form 7326-R. Concealed Movement Exercise Scorecard, July 1994. 



This source was also used to develop this publication. 



Referencce-1 



FM 23-10 

DA Form 7327-R. Target Detection Exercise Scorecard, July 1994. 

DA Form 7328-R. Range Estimation Exercise Scorecard, July 1994. 

DA Form 7329-R. Qualification Table No. 1 Scorecard, July 1994. 

DA Form 7330-R. Qualification Table No. 2 Scorecard, July 1994. 

*DA Pam 350-38. Training Standards in Weapon Training. 1990. 

*TM 9-1005-306-10. Operator's Manual for 7.62 mm M24 Sniper 
Weapon System (SWS). 23 June 1989. 

*TM 9-1265-211-10. Operator's Manual for Multiple Integrated Laser 
Engagement System (MILES)— Simulator System, Firing Laser, M89... 
Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW). 28 February 1989. 

READINGS RECOMMENDED 

These reading contain relevant supplemental information. 

*FM 5-20. Camouflage. 20 May 1968. 

*FM 5-36. Route Reconnaissance and Classification. 10 May 1985. 

*FM 6-30. Observed Fire Procedures. 17 June 1985. 

FM 6-121. Field Artillery Target Acquisition. 13 December 1984. 
*FM 7-93. Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations. 9 June 1987. 

FM 8-10-4. Medical Platoon Leader's Handbook. 16 November 1990 

FM 8-35. Evacuation of the Sick and Wounded. 22 December 1983. 
*FM 17-98-1. Scout Leader's Handbook. 24 September 1990. 

FM 21-26. Map Reading and Navigation. 5 July 1993. 

FM 21-75. Combat Skills of the Soldier. 3 August 1984. 

FM 23-8. M14 and M14A1 Rifles and Rifle Marksmanship. 15 April 1974. 

FM 23-9. M16A1 and M16A2 Rifle Marksmanship. 3 July 1989. 

FM 23-31. 40-mm Grenade Launchers M203 and M79. (To Be Published.; 

*FM 24-1. Signal Support in the AirLand Battle. 15 October 1990. 

*FM 24-18. Tactical Single-Channel Radio Communications Techniques. 
30 September 1987. 



This source was also used to develop this publication. 
References-2 



FM 23-10 

FM 34-3. Intelligence Analysis. 15 March 1990. 

FM 90-3(HTF). Desert Operations (How to Fight). 19 August 1977. 

FM 90-4. Air Assault Operations. 16 March 1987. 

FM 90-5(HTF). Jungle Operations (How to Fight). 16 August 1982. 

FM 90-6. Mountain Operations. 30 June 1980. 

FM 90-10(HTF). Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) 
(How to Fight). 15 August 1979. 

TC 31-24. Special Forces Air Operations. 9 September 1988. 

TC 31-25. Special Forces Waterborne Operations. 30 October 1988. 

TM 11-666. Antennas for Radio Propagation. 9 February 1953. 

TM 11-5855-262-10-1. Litton Model M972/M973. 15 June 1987. 

TM 11-5860-201-10. Operator's Manual: Laser Infrared Observation Set, 
AN/GVS-5. 2 February 1982. 



References-3 



FM 23-10 



INDEX 



aiming, 3-16 

ammunition 
M82, blank, 2-19 
Ml 18, 7.62-mm special ball, 
2-18 (see also holdoff) 

antennas (see communications) 

ART (auto-ranging telescope) I and 
II, B-10 

auto-ranging telescope (ART), 
(see ART) 

ballistics 
terminology, 3-25, 3-26 
types, 3-25 

binoculars 

M19, 2-39 

M22.2-40 
breath control, 3-20 

camouflage, 4-1 (see also tracking 
and countertracking) 

field-expedient, 4-4 

ghillie suit, 4-3 

tracking, 8-1 

types, 4-2 

communications 
antennas 
field-expedient, 7-1 — 7-3 
directional, 7-9—7-11 
omnidirectional, 7-4 — 7-8 
length, 7-12 



formats 

EPW/captured materiel report, 
7-31 

MIJI report, 7-28 

NBC 1 report, 7-32 

reconnaissance report, 7-25 

shelling report, 7-30 

situation report, 7-24 

spot report, 7-23 

sniper/observer, 3-46 

Concealed Movement Exercise 
Scorecard, (DA Form 7326-R), 
9-5, 9-6 (illus) 

Concealment Exercise Scorecard 
(DA Form 7325-R) 9-3, 9-4 (illus ) 

countertracking 
camouflage, 8-11 

deception, 8-12 

evasion, 8-11 

DA Form 5785-R (Sniper's Data 
Card), 3-37 (illus) 

DA Form 5786-R (Sniper's 
Observation Log), 4-47 (illus) 

DA Form 5787-R (Sniper's Range 
Card), 4-43 (illus) 

DA Form 5788-R (Military Sketch), 
4.44, 4.45 (illus) 

DA Form 7325-R (Concealment 
Exercise Scorecard), 9-3, 9-4 (illus) 



Index-1 



FM 28-10 



DA Form 7326-R (Concealed 
Movement Exercise Scorecard), 
9-5, 9-6 (illus) 

DA Form 7327-R (Target Detection 
Exercise Scorecard), 9-7, 9-8 (illus) 

DAForm 7328-R (Range Estimation 
Exercise Scorecard), 9-9, 9-10 
(illus) 

DA Form 7329-R (Qualification 
Table No. 1 Scorecard), 9-36, 9-38 
(illus) 

DA Form 7330-R (Qualification 
Table No. 2 Scorecard), 9-36, 9-39 
(illus) 

deployment kit, 2-2, 2-3 (illus) 

dog/handler teams, 8-9 

duty 
observer, 1-2 (see also responsi- 
bilities) 

sniper, 1-2, 1-4 (see also responsi- 
bilities) 

sniper employment officer 
(SEO), 1-2 
team leader, 1-2 

equipment 5-15, (see also radio) 

military operations on urbanized 

terrain (MOUT), 5-17 

other, 2-40 

special, 5-14 
extraction (see operations) 



foreign weapons 
Austria, A-l 

Belgium, A-2 

Finland, A-2 

France, A-2 

Germany, A-3 

Israel, A-4 

Italy, A-4 

Spain, A-4 

Switzerland, A-4 

the former Czechoslovakia, A-2 

the former Russia, A-6 

the former Yugoslavia, A-7 

fundamentals 
aiming, 3-16 
breath control, 3-20 
calling the shot, 3-22 
firing, 3-23 
follow-through, 3-22 
steady position elements, 3-1 
trigger control, 3-21—3-22 

grenade launcher, M203, 1-3, 2-32 

holdoff,3-40 
7.62-mm special ball (M18) 3-42 
(illus) 

insertion (see operations) 



firing position, 3-1, 3-2 (illus) 
types, 3-4 

firing techniques 
observer, 1-6 
sniper, 1-6 



keep in-memory (KIM) game, 9-12, 
9-13 (illus), 9-14 (illus) 

KIM game (see keep-in-memory 
game) 



Index-2 



FM 23-10 



laser observation set, AN/GVS-5, 
2-35, 2-36 (illus) 

litter, 8-8 

M16 rifle, 1-3 

M16A1/A2 rifle, 2-32 

M21 sniper weapon system, 
(see sniper weapon system, M21) 

M24 sniper weapon system, 
(see sniper weapon system, M24) 

M49 observation telescope 
(see telescope, M49) 

M203 grenade launcher, 
(see grenade launcher, M203) 

marksmanship fundamentals 

aiming, 3-16 

breath control, 3-20 

calling the shot, 3-22 

firing, 3-23 

follow-through, 3-22 

steady position elements, 3-1 

trigger control, 3-21—3-22 

MILES trianing, 9-40 

Military Sketch (DA Form 5788-R), 
4-44, 4-45 (illus) 

minutes of angle, 3-33 

mission, 1-1, 1-2 
preparation 
briefback, 5-8 
checklist, 5-2 
mission alert, 5-1 
operation order, 5-7 
packaging list, 5-3 
tentative plan, 5-1 
warning order, 5-1 



mission-oriented protection posture 
(MOPP) (see MOPP) 

MOPP (mission-oriented protection 
posture), 3-46 

movement, 4-7 
techniques, 4-8 — 4-14 

NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical), 
3-45 

night vison goggles 

AN/PVS-5,2-34 

AN/PVS-7 series, 2-35, 2-36 (illus) 

night vision sight, AN/PVS-4, 2-33 

nuclear, biological, chemical 
(NBC) (see NBC) 

observation 
detailed search, 4-29, 4-30 (illus) 
elements, 4-30 
log, 2-50 
techniques 

night, 4-31 

twilight, 4-31 
telescope, M49 (see telescope) 

operations 
execution, 6-10, 9-21 
extraction, 6-13 
insertion, 6-1, 9-21 

air, 6-3 

amphibious, 6-5 

land, 6-7 
recovery, 6-15 

organization 
light infantry division, 1-2 

mechanized infantry battalion, 1-2 



Index-3 



FM 23-10 



positions 
construction, 4-16 

occupation, 4-15 

selection, 4-14 

urban terrain, 4-23 

Qualification Table No. 1 Scorecard 
(DA Form 7329-R), 9-36, 9-38 
(Ulus) 

Qualification Table No. 2 Scorecard, 
(DA Form 7330-R), 9-36, 9-39 
(Ulus) 

radios 
AN/PRC-77, 2-41 

AN/PRC-104A 2-42 
AN/PRC-119,2-43 

operation under unusual 
conditions, 7-13 

arctic, 7-13 

desert, 7-20 

jungle, 7-15 

mountainous, 7-22 

urbanized terrain, 7-22 

range estimation, 4-36 
100-meter-unit-of-measure, 4-37 

appearance-of-object, 4-38 

auto-ranging telescopes (ARTs) 
IandII,B-10 

bracketing, 4-38 

combination, 4-40 

mil-relation formula, 4-38 

paper strip, 4-36 

range card, 4-38, 4-42 

tables, 4-41 



Range Estimation Exercise Scorecard, 
(DA Form 7328-R), 9-9, 9-10 
(Ulus) 

responsibilities 
observer, 1-5 

sniper, 1-5 

rifle 
M16, 1-3 

M16A1/A2, 2-32 

scopes 
ART I and II scopes, B-10 

shot calling, 3-22 
iron sight, 3-23 (see also sights) 

telescopic sights, 3-23 (see also 
sights) 

sighting devices 
auto-range telescope (ART), B-10 

ART l,B-10 (Ulus) 

ARTII,B-10,B-ll(i//iw) 

mounts, B-12 

reticles, B-12 

sights 
alignment, 3-18 
iron, 2-29 
picture, 3-19 

sketches, military 
panoramic, 4-43 

topographic, 4-44 

sniper/observer, 3-46 

sniper data book, 3-25, 3-36, 4-46 

Sniper's Data Card 

(DA Form 57-85-R), 3-37 (Ulus) 

Sniper's Observation Log 
(DA Form 5786-R), 4-47 (Ulus) 



lndex-4 



FM 23-10 



Sniper's Range Card, 

(DA Form 5787-R), 4-43 (illus) 

sniper weapon systems 
M21, B-2 (illus) 

care and maintenance, B-3 

differences, B-l 

inspection, B-2 

loading and unloading, B-4 

malfunctions and corrections, 

B-5 (table) 

rear sights, B-4, B-5 (illus) 
M24, 2-1, 2-2 (illus) 

care and maintenance, 2-9 

disassembly, 2-15 

loading and unloading, 2-17 

malfunctions and corrections, 

2-19 

storage, 2-13 

sustainment training 
additional skills, 9-15 
basic skills, 9-1 
equipment, 9-22 
training program, 9-25 — 9-36 



tracking, 3-44 
trapping, 3-44 

techniques 
stay-behind, 6-8 
night, 4-31 
twilight, 4-31 (also see observation) 

telescope 
auto-ranging telescopes (ART) 
(see ART) 
M3A scope, 2-22 
observation, M49, 2-37 
operation, 2-26 

tracking 

camouflage, 8-8 

displacement, 8-1 

dog/handler teams, 8-9 

litter, 8-8 

stains, 8-5 

weather, 8-6 
trajectory, 3-26, 3-27 (table) 
trigger control, 3-21—3-22 

uniform, 5-15 



target detection, 4-32 weapon system (see specific aspects) 

Target Detection Exercise Scorecard weather effects, 3-29 (see also 
(DA Form 7327-R), 9-7, 9-8 (illus) tracking) 



target selection, 4-34 

targets, moving, 3-43 
engagement, 9-41 

key, 4-35 
leading, 3-43 



humidity, 3-36 
light, 3-36 
mirages, 3-32 
temperature, 3-36 
wind, 3-31 



Index-5 



CO 




O 






cc 




111 






tu 




DC 






h- 


hi 


O 






111 


o 


O 






s 


< 

D 

Z 

5 


Q 
111 
CO 
3 








H- 






O 










HI 










tr 






H 


z 


oc 
O 
o 






LU 


o 






O 


£ 








DC 


& 








< 


_i 








H 


uj 


Q 






o 




UJ 
CO 






UJ 

O 




13 










Q 






CO 




y 


z 






_l 




r 


oc 




< 


UJ 

1- 




o 

I 




V 


< 

5 




C/> 


< 






N 


Ul 

oc 






Q 






oc 

o 




Z 

o 


o 














y 








o 

















I 




1 UJ 


o> 








I 










1 oc 


















O 

z 

UJ 
n 




a 


o 




00 
















of 

^ i 




5 

UJ 


z 
5 


JCVI CO . 


C- 








o 
o 
co 

Q 
2 




h- 






<o 








Ul 












b «• 




C3 




o 


m 








Q o 


< 

UJ 

_l 




g 

s 




O 

_i 

Ul 










f 








0)1 


u. 
oc 








> 
























CC2 
HI i 
£L "- 

•s 






t- 

I 




y^CO^V 


CO 




















o 

_l 


i- 
i 


Jc\i (qL 


CM 








- 








111 




o 


o 

_l 










8 

4 


o 

z 




5 

< 




\o/ 


i- 
O 
I 

CO 


> 

Ul 

_l 

Ul 


a 

z 


O < _i _i 



UJ 

X 

h- 

LL 
O 
CO 

Q 
UJ 
UJ 

z 

UJ 

X 



UJ 
UJ 



< 

X 

> 

CO 
Z 

< 

oc 
a 

UJ 



CO 

I- 

LU 

CC 
< 

I- 

Q 
UJ 
OC 

Z> 

o 

LU 
OC . 



0> 
00 



3 

"9 



00 

r- 00 
UJ^N 

X 2 u> 

h- 3 — 



OI 

I- 

O 

z 



oc 

O 
u. 

< 

Q 



co 




CO 




ul 




cc 




ai 




< 




I 




^ 




CO 




UJ 










DC 










CC 










o 




LL 




CO 




o 




z 










o 










h- 








z 


o 








o 


< 




f- 
LU 

111 


H- 






< 






I 


o 






CO 


o 










1- 








z 








UJ 








> 








Ul 






lii 






o 


2 






oi 


UJ 






-J * 


5 






O i 


a 












bl 




Ul 




< 1 




H 




> 1 




< 




Ml * 




z 

a 








DC 

o 
o 
o 




w8 




a 




a * 




DC 
C5 








— * 




Ul 




z 1 


a: 


5 




O 


H 






< 

z 


_l 
< 






CD 


cc 






DC 


Ul 






O 


CO 





DC 
O 

LL 

< 

a 



(f) 
*: 
cc 
< 

HI 

cc 



(fi 

cc 
< 

LU 
OC 



LU 

t: 

UJ 

Si 

Q 



UJ v 

2 Z 

< < 

Z cc 



X 

o 

y- 

Ul 
CO 



UJ 

< 
o 
co 




UJ 

< 

z 



UJ 



Q 

OC 

O 
O 



o o 

Q 



OC 
Ul 

X 



tn 9 < 

UJ — in 



CO O 



01 
00 



N 
00 

10 



O 

Li. 

< 

a 



CONCEALMENT EXERCISE SCORECARD 
Exercise Number 

For use of this form, see FM 23-10; the proponent agency is TRADOC 

DATA REQUIRED BY PRIVACY ACT OF 1974. 
AUTHORITY: 10 USC 3012 (g) /Executive Order 1974. PRINCIPAL PURPOSE ( S) : Evaluates 
individual training. ROUTINE USE(S) : Evaluates individual proficiency. SSN is 
used for positive identification purposes only. MANDATORY OR VOLUNTARY 
DISCLOSURE AND EFFECT ON INDIVIDUAL NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION: Voluntary. 
Individuals not providing information cannot be rated/scored on a mass basis. 



Last name First 



MI 



Rank 



SSN 



Unit 



Date 



Weather \visibility 



Score 



If the sniper Points Deducted Total 

•Was detected without the aid of optics (first 2 minutes) .2....0....2 
•Was detected with the aid of optics (18 minutes) ....1....0....3 
•Was detected when assistant trainer was within 

10 feet of sniper l .... .... 4 

•Properly identied the number within 30 seconds 1....0....5 

• Failed to properly identify the number 0....3....2 

• Fired first shot, not detected 4....0....6 

•Fired second shot, not detected 1....0....7 

•Maintained stable firing position (support) 2....0....9 

•Properly adjusted weapon's scope for range and windage .1....0....10 

NOTES: (Check one of the target indicators.) 

1. If the sniper was caught trying to identify 

the number, score 4 points. □ Contrast to background 

2. If muzzle blast/flash is detected, DMuzzle blast 
deduct 1 point from total score. DMuzzle flash 

3. Failing to comply with training D Improper movement techniques 
standards and objectives (such as unnecessary □ Improper camouflage 
movement, premature fire, outide prescribed □ Shine 

boundries) will result in termination of the □ Outline 
exercise and a score of zero. D Sound 



Trainer's signature 



DA FORM 7325-R, JUL 94 



Sn iper ' s s ignatur e 



CONCEALED MOVEMENT EXERCISE SCORECARD 
Exercise Number 



For use of this form, see FM 23-10; the proponent agency is TRADOC 

DATA REQUIRED BY PRIVACY ACT OF 1974. 
AUTHORITY: 10 USC 3012 (g) /Executive Order 9397. PRINCIPAL PURPOSE (S): 
Evaluates individual training. ROUTINE USE(S): Evaluates individual profi- 
ciency. SSN is used for positive identification purposes only. MANDATORY 
OR VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE AND EFFECT ON INDIVIDUAL NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION: 
Voluntary. Individuals not providing information cannot be rated/ scored on 
a mass basis. 



Last name 



First 



MI 



Rank 



SSN 



Unit 



Date 



Weather \visibility 



Score 



If the sniper Points Deducted Total 

• Was detected moving to FFL ....0 ....0 

• Was detected moving in FFL 6 ....0 ....6 

•Fired first round shot, not detected 2 ....0 ....8 

•Was not detected when assistant trainer is within 

10 feet of sniper 2 .... .... 10 

•Properly identified number (within 30 seconds) ... .2 ... .0 .... 12 

• Failed to properly identify number 2 .... .... 14 

•Was not detected when assistant trainer is 

within 5 feet of sniper 2 .... .... 16 

•Fired second shot, not detected 2 ... .0 .... 18 

•Maintained stable firing position (support) 1 ... .0 .... 19 

•Properly adjusted weapon's scope for range and windage ..1 ....0 ....20 

NOTES: (Check one of the target indicators.) 

1. If muzzle blast/ flash is detected, D Contrast to back- D Improper 
deduct 1 point from total score. ground camouflage 

2. Failing to comply with training DMuzzle blast DShine 
standards and objectives (such as DMuzzle flash DOutline 
unnecessary movement, premature fire, D Improper movement D Sound 
outside prescribed boundries) will techniques 

result in termination of the exercise 

and a score of zero. 

REMARKS: Explain in detail on back the 

reason for sniper's detection. ; . 

Trainer's signature Sniper's signature 



DA FORM 7326-R. JUL 94 



ROSTER*: ( ) TARGET DETECTION EXERCISE SCORECARD ex#: < ) 

For use of this form, see FM 23-10; the proponent agency is TRADOC 





A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Q 


H 


7 


















6 


















5 


















4 


















3 


















2 


















1 






































SKETCH NAME: 



GRID COORDINATE:. 
WEATHER: 



k 



Magnetic 
Azimuth 



Sketch #_ 
of 



Block Scale: 



SKETCH NAME: 



GRID COORDINATE: 

DATE: TIME: 



SIZE 



SHAPE 



COLOR 



CONDITION 



APPEARS TO BE 



GRID BOX LOC. 



10 



DA FORM 7327-R, JUL 94 



RANGE ESTIMATION EXERCISE SCORECARD 
Exercise Number 



For use of this form, see FM 23-10; the proponent agency is TRADOC 

DATA REQUIRED BY PRIVACY ACT OF 1974. 
AUTHORITY: 10 USC 3012 (g) /Executive Order 9397. PRINCIPAL PURPOSE(S): 
Evaluates individual training. ROUTINE USE(S) : Evaluates individual profi- 
ciency. SSN is used for positive identification purposes only. MANDATORY OR 
VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE AND EFFECT ON INDIVIDUAL NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION: 
Voluntary. Individuals not providing information cannot be rated/ scored on a 
mass basis. 



Last name First MI Rank SSN Unit 

Date Weather\visibility Score 



EYE 

ESTIMATION 

+- 15% 


BINOCULAR 

ESTIMATION 

+- 10% 


M3A TELESCOPE 
ESTIMATION 

+- 5% 


1 


1 






1 


2 


2 






2 


3 


3 






3 


4 


4 






4 


5 


5 






5 


6 


6 






6 


7 


7 






7 


8 


8 






8 


9 
L0 


9 
10 






9 
10 







1. Within three minutes, the range to the 
target is estimated at each point, using 
the naked eye, binoculars, and the M3A 
telescope. Estimations must be performed 
in the order listed. 

2. Once an estimate is recorded, it cannot 
be changed; it will be counted as incorrect. 
However, the M3A telescope estimate may 
be changed before the next set of estimates 
are recorded. 

3. The use of calculators is encouraged. 

4. This is an individual exercise. Any 
sniper that talks or tries to look at 
another sniper's scorecard is terminated 
from the exercise. 

5. If there are any questions, the trainer 
will assist you. 



Trainer's signature Sniper's signature 



DA FORM 7328-R, JUL 94 



MAKE A SKETCH OF THE SECTOR YOU ARE 


ASSIGNED TO COVER. 








A 


B 


C 


D 


E 




i 














2 














3 














4 














5 





























Paaa 2. DA FORM 7Z1R-R .1111 QA 



QUALIFICATION TABLE No. 1 SCORECARD 
Exercise Number 

For use of this form, see FM 23-10; the proponent agency is TRADOC 

DATA REQUIRED BY PRIVACY ACT OF 1974. 
AUTHORITY: 10 USC 3012 (g) /Executive Order 9397. PRINCIPAL PURPOSE(S): 
Evaluates individual training. ROUTINE USE(S) : Evaluates individual profi- 
ciency. SSN is used for positive identification purposes only. MANDATORY OR 
VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE AND EFFECT ON INDIVIDUAL NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION: 
Voluntary. Individuals not providing information cannot be rated/ scored on 
a mass basis. 

(circle one) 
Record or practice 



Last name 


First 


MI 






Rank 


SSN Unit 


Date 




Weather\vis 


ibility 




Score 


TARGET 
(meters) 
200 
300 
325 
375 
500 
600 
500 
375 
600 
700 


1st 


Round 


2d Round 


Miss 


TARGET 
(meters) 
500 
400 
325 
400 
600 
500 
700 
325 
300 
200 


1st Round 2d Round Miss 


























































































































xlO x5= 






Trainer ' 


s signature 


Sniper's signature 



DA FORM 7329-R, JUL 94 



QUALIFICATION TABLE No. 2 SCORECARD 
Exercise Number 

For use of this form, see FM 23-10; the proponent agency is TRADOC 

DATA REQUIRED BY PRIVACY ACT OF 1974. 
AUTHORITY: 10 USC 3012 (g) /Executive Order 9397. PRINCIPAL PURPOSE ( S) : 
Evaluates individual training. ROUTINE USE(S) : Evaluates individual profi- 
ciency. SSN is used for positive identification purposes only. MANDATORY OR 
VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE AND EFFECT ON INDIVIDUAL NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION: 
Voluntary. Individuals not providing information cannot be rated/scored on 
a mass basis. 

(circle one) 
Record or practice 



Last name 


First 


MI 






Rank 


SSN Unit 


Date 




Weather\vis 


.ibility 




Score 


TARGET 
(meters) 
200 
300 
325 
375 
600 


1st 


Round 


2d Round 


Miss 


TARGET 
(meters) 
900 
850 
800 
750 
700 
900 
500 
400 
325 
300 


1st Round 2d Round Miss 


















































500 














600 














700 














750 














800 














850 


























xlO x5= 






Trainer' 


s signature 


Sniper's signature 



DA FORM 7330-R, JUL 94 



FM 23-10 
17 AUGUST 1994 



By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 



GORDON R. SULLIVAN 
General, United States Army 
Chief of Staff 



Official: 

MILTON H. HAMILTON 

Administrative Assistant to the 

Secretary of the Arm\ 



DISTRIBUTION: 



Active Army, USAR, and ARNG: 
To be distributed in accordance with DA 
Form 12-11E, requirements for FM 23-10, 
Sniper Training (Qty rqr block no. 1335) 

*U.S. Government Printing Office: 1994-528-027/80156 



PIN: 072777-000